By Gordon Martel
A spouse to Europe 1900-1945 ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ, ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Blackwell Publishing LtdСерия: Blackwell partners to ecu historyАвтор(ы): Gordon MartelЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2006Количество страниц: 587ISBN: 978-1-4051-0664-1Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 4,35 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero
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Extra resources for A Companion to Europe 1900-1945
Before the war, few were prepared to face the horrors of another war. Unlike 1914, there was no rejoicing, no spontaneous demonstrations in the streets in 1939. Everyone expected that this war would be even more devastating: there was little or no popular enthusiasm for the war even in Nazi Germany, Soviet Russia, or fascist Italy. Nevertheless, the “totalitarian” regimes were able to mobilize sufficient support to fight the war – but so were the old regimes of the parliamentary democracies. The stunning defeat of France in 1940, followed by the battle of Britain and the invasion of the Soviet Union, brought the Axis states to the brink of total victory.
Thus, criminality was primarily seen to reside among the lower classes, and there were a number of ways in which this connection was made. In the first instance, concerns over the degenerating effects of slum living on the poor often overlapped with debates about crime. Eugenics movements routinely associated race (or rather, foreigners) with crime, but also considered issues of class and social status as significant. In fascist Italy, for example, youngsters from deprived backgrounds were seen as inherently predisposed to criminality, and hence the fascist police often used their increased powers to put “suspicious” youths into custody.
And the way to reverse the judgment imposed by the French and the British was to restore those elements of imperial might that had enabled their opponents to succeed: they must rebuild their armies and navies. Indeed, in order to succeed where they had previously failed they needed to go further: they would have to build political and social systems that were more cohesive and dynamic than those that had collapsed under the weight of war. Thus, in Soviet Russia, then fascist Italy, and finally in Nazi Germany, there was little nostalgic yearning to restore the world of 1900; instead, they promoted a “futurist” vision of a new society that would harness the power of modernity to overcome the limitations imposed by history and tradition.
A Companion to Europe 1900-1945 by Gordon Martel