By John Watkinson
"The thought and dynamics of helicopter flight are advanced and for the uninitiated, tricky. yet during this booklet, British helicopter pilot and technical writer John Watkinson units out to simplify the strategies, and clarify in lay-man's phrases how a helicopter operates. utilizing pictures and over four hundred diagrams, all features of rotary flight are lined together with the background of rotor-craft, helicopter dynamics, rotors, tails, strength crops and keep watch over. this is often a good ebook for any helicopter enthusiast." Airforce, Fall 2004 "...clear and straightforward diagrams that reduction verbal causes of the way helicopters are made." -AOPA, 2004 "The artwork of the Helicopter is designed to de-mystify the complexity because it examines helicopter aerodynamic concept, layout and function. The e-book goals to debate its topics readably, start every one topic from first rules and construct on these in a "clearly defined logical series utilizing simple English and transparent diagrams, heading off pointless mathematics"... - Flight security Digest, might 2004
, Pages xi-xii
, Page xiii
1 - creation to rotorcraft
, Pages 1-21
2 - Technical background
, Pages 22-60
3 - advent to helicopter dynamics
, Pages 61-116
4 - Rotors in practice
, Pages 117-165
5 - The tail
, Pages 166-190
6 - Engines and transmissions
, Pages 191-257
7 - Control
, Pages 258-322
8 - Helicopter performance
, Pages 323-346
9 - different varieties of rotorcraft
, Pages 347-378
, Pages 379-390
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Additional info for Art of the Helicopter
1 l(a) shows a helicopter flying at 30 knots directly into a 30 knot wind. Aerodynamically it is doing 30 knots but inertially it is stationary and has no kinetic energy. Inertially it is hovering. 11 (b) shows a helicopter flying at 30 knots down wind in a 30 knot wind. Aerodynamically the conditions are the same, but inertially the machine is now doing 60 knots and possesses the kinetic energy due to that groundspeed. The difference in kinetic energy becomes obvious when an attempt is made to change heading.
Sounds below the threshold of pain have such a small pressure variation compared with atmospheric pressure that the effect is negligible and air can be assumed to be linear. However, on any occasion where the pressures are higher, a situation not unknown in aviation, this is not a valid assumption. In such cases the positive half cycle significantly increases local temperature and the speed of sound, whereas the negative half cycle reduces temperature and velocity. 14 shows that this results in significant distortion of a sine wave, ultimately causing a s h o c k wave that can travel faster than the speed of sound until the pressure has dissipated with distance.
Increasing the damping lowers and broadens the peak so that with high damping the velocity is nearly independent of frequency. e. the response to a sudden shock. The underdamped system enters a decaying oscillation. The overdamped system takes a considerable time to return to rest. The critically damped system returns to rest in the shortest time possible subject to not overshooting. Below resonance the displacement of the spring is proportional to the force. Here force and displacement are in phase.
Art of the Helicopter by John Watkinson