By E. Meszaros
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Extra info for Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamental Aspects
The ppm is a so-called volume mixing ratio' which is equal to unity if the concentration of a certain gas in the air is 1 cm3 ' The more exact abbreviation is ppmv (v: volume). In this book for the sake of simplicity we always use ppm for ppmv. 30 ATMOSPHERIC CYCLE OF 1RAC E CONSTITUENTS In the case of smaller concentrations pphm (parts per hundred million) and ppb (parts per billion; where billion= lo9) can also be used. Another possibility to express the atmospheric level of trace gases and aerosol particles is the “mass concentration”, which gives the mass of a substance per unit volume of air.
According to McCarthy er (11. 41 x lo6 t, respectively. Measurement of atmospheric halogenated hydrocarbon started rather recently. The early measurements of Lovelock et al. (1973)show, among other things, that the background concentration of CCl,F, observed over the Atlantic ocean from the United Kingdom to the Antarctic and back, depends upon the geographical latitude. ' The results of very numerous measurements carried out since about 1970 are reviewed by Jesson et al. Graedel and Allara's estimates of mean tropospheric concentrations are tabulated in Table 8.
30] was much faster than previous indirect measurements had indicated. This finding again increased the value of the ozone reduction obtained by different model calculation^'^ (see Chapter 6). g : Rundel and Stolarski (1976). 30) removes HO, which can react with CI: CI+ HO,+HCI+O,. 301 OH radicals are formed. Thus the reaction HCI+OH-rH,O+CI is accelerated. 28] that CI and CIO are reformed by these processes. A temporary chemical sink for chlorine species is provided in the stratosphere by some reaction steps leading to the formation of hydrogen chloride.
Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamental Aspects by E. Meszaros