By Clara B. Jones
Various figures, illustrations, and tables; integration of recent literature and ideas into box of primatology; emphasis upon either behavioral and cognitive mechanisms.
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Additional resources for Behavioral Flexibility in Primates: Causes and Consequences (Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects)
Although variants of the second usage of this term are predominant in the primate literature, in the present volume, an inclusive, Triversian deﬁnition will be followed except where noted otherwise, and the relative costs or beneﬁts to inclusive ﬁtness of each of his classes of interaction may have different consequences for the display of behavioral ﬂexibility. Each of these states (selﬁshness, spite, cooperation, altruism), for example, may be more or less likely to correspond to different degrees of environmental heterogeneity (and, possibly, dispersal costs, generation time of a given population, probabilities of successful reproduction, and/or other factors).
Individuals often disperse as juveniles or adults to new locations, and dispersal rates and distances are expected to determine patch occupation and extinction rates (Wiens, 2001). As pointed out previously, behavioral ﬂexibility is expected to be a stronger effect for overall phenotypic variance for younger than for older individuals, all other things being equal, and, thus, thresholds of response in heterogeneous regimes are likely to vary with age and reproductive value. It is well documented that a wide variety of temporal and spatial modiﬁcations of habitat may affect patterns of animal movement, and habitat fragmentation has received particular attention, in part because of researchers’ emphasis upon spatial subdivision in metapopulation models (Wiens, 2001; Hanski, 1994; Jones, 1995d).
Learning, Environmental Heterogeneity, and Behavioral Flexibility In the social sciences, use of the term “plasticity” extends at least to the writings of G. Stanley Hall and William James in the late 1800s. , Titchener, Washburn), both in the United States and abroad. The concern for interindividual and intraindividual variation and for adaptation to local conditions links these early researchers and their associates with several traditional subjects of study in psychology, such as individual differences, learning, and development, in addition to physiology, including sensation and perception and, notably, Darwinian theory (Darwin, 1859, 1965).
Behavioral Flexibility in Primates: Causes and Consequences (Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects) by Clara B. Jones