By Gideon Polya
This completely listed booklet summarizes a wealth of knowledge at the biochemical pursuits of plant protecting compounds, and is an a useful reference for all biomedical execs.
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Additional resources for Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds: A Pharmacological Reference Guide to Sites of Action and Biological Effects
Various condensed and hydrolysable tannins are cytotoxic with antitumour activity Notwithstanding the general avidity of tannins for polypeptides, there are many examples of specificity in tannin-protein interactions. Condensed tannins derive from the polymerization of flavan-3-01s such as (+)-catechin (-)-epicatechin (E; (+)-3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy(C; (+)-3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavan), flavan), EGC; 5'-hydroxyepicatechin) and ECG, this typically involving 4+ 8 and 6 +8 C-C links. The condensed tannins are classified on the basis of the mauve- to red-coloured monomeric anthocyanidin products produced by heating the tannin in acid, for example, as indicated in parentheses as follows: procyanidins (product cyanidin, 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavylium), prodelphinidins (delphinidin, 3,5,7,3',4',5'-hexahydroxyflavylium), propelargonidins (pelargonidin, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavylium)and proluteolirlidirls (luteolir~idir~, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyfla\ylium).
Good vitamin B, sources are leafy vegetables, grain and legumes and deficiency causes beri beri (diarrhoea and fatigue). Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a riboside of isoalloxazine (Phe 1 pyrazine I pyrimidine) (Phe lpC4N2 I mC4N2) (Section 1, Appendix) and is part of the redox coenzymes flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN/FMNH2)(oxidized/ reduced forms). Riboflavin is present in leafy vegetables and cereals and deficiency is associated with growth retardation. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) (1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-dicarboxymethylpyridine) is the precursor of pyridoxal phosphate, a coenzyme involved in transaminase and lysyl oxidase.
Cephalotaxine alkaloids include the cytotoxic, anticancer protein synthesis inhibitors cephalotaxine, harringtonine and homoharringtonine. Imidazole-containing alkaloids related to the amino acid histidine include histamine (imidazole-4-ethanamine) (C3N2) (from numerous plant sources) and casimiroedine (an N-glycoside), N-methylhistamine and N,N-dimethylhistamine from Casimiroa edulis (Rutaceae) that are hypotensive through interaction with histamine receptors. Imidazoloylmethylfuranones include the parasympathetic agonist pilocarpine (C40L-CH2-C3N2) and pilosine (carpidine) (Phe-CH2-C40L-CH2-C3N2)from Pilocarpus species (Rutaceae), narcotic compounds that are agonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mACh-Rs) and accordingly stimulate salivation and tear secretion.
Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds: A Pharmacological Reference Guide to Sites of Action and Biological Effects by Gideon Polya