Gideon Polya's Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds: A PDF

By Gideon Polya

ISBN-10: 0415308291

ISBN-13: 9780415308298

This completely listed booklet summarizes a wealth of knowledge at the biochemical pursuits of plant protecting compounds, and is an a useful reference for all biomedical execs.

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Various condensed and hydrolysable tannins are cytotoxic with antitumour activity Notwithstanding the general avidity of tannins for polypeptides, there are many examples of specificity in tannin-protein interactions. Condensed tannins derive from the polymerization of flavan-3-01s such as (+)-catechin (-)-epicatechin (E; (+)-3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy(C; (+)-3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavan), flavan), EGC; 5'-hydroxyepicatechin) and ECG, this typically involving 4+ 8 and 6 +8 C-C links. The condensed tannins are classified on the basis of the mauve- to red-coloured monomeric anthocyanidin products produced by heating the tannin in acid, for example, as indicated in parentheses as follows: procyanidins (product cyanidin, 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavylium), prodelphinidins (delphinidin, 3,5,7,3',4',5'-hexahydroxyflavylium), propelargonidins (pelargonidin, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavylium)and proluteolirlidirls (luteolir~idir~, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyfla\ylium).

Good vitamin B, sources are leafy vegetables, grain and legumes and deficiency causes beri beri (diarrhoea and fatigue). Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a riboside of isoalloxazine (Phe 1 pyrazine I pyrimidine) (Phe lpC4N2 I mC4N2) (Section 1, Appendix) and is part of the redox coenzymes flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN/FMNH2)(oxidized/ reduced forms). Riboflavin is present in leafy vegetables and cereals and deficiency is associated with growth retardation. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) (1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-dicarboxymethylpyridine) is the precursor of pyridoxal phosphate, a coenzyme involved in transaminase and lysyl oxidase.

Cephalotaxine alkaloids include the cytotoxic, anticancer protein synthesis inhibitors cephalotaxine, harringtonine and homoharringtonine. Imidazole-containing alkaloids related to the amino acid histidine include histamine (imidazole-4-ethanamine) (C3N2) (from numerous plant sources) and casimiroedine (an N-glycoside), N-methylhistamine and N,N-dimethylhistamine from Casimiroa edulis (Rutaceae) that are hypotensive through interaction with histamine receptors. Imidazoloylmethylfuranones include the parasympathetic agonist pilocarpine (C40L-CH2-C3N2) and pilosine (carpidine) (Phe-CH2-C40L-CH2-C3N2)from Pilocarpus species (Rutaceae), narcotic compounds that are agonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mACh-Rs) and accordingly stimulate salivation and tear secretion.

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Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds: A Pharmacological Reference Guide to Sites of Action and Biological Effects by Gideon Polya

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