By Worldwatch Institute
The area is at the verge of an exceptional raise within the creation and use of biofuels for shipping. the mix of emerging oil costs, problems with protection, weather instability and toxins, deepening poverty in rural and agricultural parts, and a bunch of stronger applied sciences, is propelling governments to enact strong incentives for using those fuels, that's in flip sparking funding. Biofuels for delivery is a special and entire overview of the possibilities and dangers of the large-scale construction of biofuels. The booklet demystifies advanced questions and matters, equivalent to the ?food v. gas? debate. worldwide in scope, it truly is extra expert by way of 5 nation experiences from Brazil, China, Germany, India and Tanzania. The authors finish that biofuels will play an important function in our power destiny, yet warn that the large-scale use of biofuels includes dangers that require targeted and instant coverage projects. released in organization with BMELV, FNR and GTZ.
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Extra resources for Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Energy and Agriculture
Ethanol production starts by grinding up the feedstock so it is more easily and quickly processed. Once ground up, the sugar is either dissolved out of the material or the starch is converted into sugar. The sugar is then fed to yeast in a closed anaerobic chamber. 1 Brazilian facilities are the most signiﬁcant producers of sugar-based fuel ethanol in the world. The fermentation units are usually integrated within existing sugar mills, where the co-products of reﬁning sugar cane include various grades of sugar, molasses, CO2 and the ﬁbrous residue of crushed sugar cane stalks, called bagasse.
The enzyme company Novozymes, with funding from the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory, announced in 2005 that it could reduce the cost of some of these enzymes by 10 to 30 times and promised further reductions in the near future. 42 In Canada, Iogen Corporation 12 BIOFUELS FOR TRANSPORT operates a pilot plant to convert straw into ethanol using enzymatic technology, and has now teamed up with Shell, Volkswagen and DaimlerChrysler to build a pre-commercial straw-to-ethanol plant in Europe.
Thus, while spills have led to surprisingly high concentrations of MTBE in groundwater, ETBE may disperse less rapidly and be easier to clean up. 10 ETBE has an advantage over ethanol in that it does not raise the fuel vapour pressure of gasoline blends. It also blends more completely with gasoline and will not separate if exposed to water in pipelines, ships or trucks. Partly as a result, petroleum companies in many European countries have more readily embraced ETBE use, since it is easier to manage fuel vapour pressure speciﬁcations and it is less complicated to transport blends of ETBE and gasoline.
Biofuels for Transport: Global Potential and Implications for Energy and Agriculture by Worldwatch Institute