By Gerald Reed, T. W. Nagodawithana
This quantity examines the classical features of biotechnology: the applying of organic rules for the aim of changing foodstuffs into extra palatable, nutritious or reliable meals. 4 specified, yet comparable components are lined intimately: enzymes, biomass construction, nutrition fermentations and feed fermentations. specific recognition is paid to the analytical makes use of of enzymes. in addition, foodstuff fermentations are taken care of on a world-wide foundation, from pickles to the Korean kimchi. subject matters integrated are: construction of Enzymes as tremendous chemical compounds - dietary price of Microbial Biomass - Baked items - Baker's Yeast construction - Carbohydrate-Based Sweeteners - Wine and Brandy - Brewing - Cheese - Vinegar - Indigenous Fermented meals - Fermented Feeds and Feed supplementations
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Extra info for Biotechnology, 2E, Vol. 9, Enzymes, Biomass, Food and Feed
Iron-sulfur clusters, molybdenum-iron clusters). , in oxidation-reduction reactions). Metal ions are also used by a number of enzymes in order to bind substrate which coordinates to the metal ion or to polarize a bond prior to attack using such coordination (see Fig. 8). Many cases are known in which monovalent cations, usually K or NH4+ ion, activate enzymes. This activation is usually non-essential in that there is at least some catalytic activity in their absence, unlike the essential activation one observes with many divalent cations.
80-p. solved easily. In this treatment, v is plotted against v / [ S ]to yield a linear plot with a negaand tive Catalysis slope. the slope, The is efficient -y-intercept K m . , is bound readily). These properties are therefore indicative of the specificity of an enzyme for a substrate. , WHITAKER,1994). 2 Multi-Substrate Reactions: Cleland’s Notation, and the King-Altman Method In the common situation in which more than one substrate is involved, the simple Michaelis-Menten treatment does not suffice.
2 General Acid/Base Catalysis In addition to pure binding effects, enzymes provide catalytic groups of several different types. In solution, acidic compounds can catalyze reactions by supplying protons at specific locations to stabilize an intermediate. For instance, acid-catalyzed amide hydrolysis proceeds by protonation of the carbonyl oxygen atom of the amide to render the carbonyl carbon more electrophilic for attack by water, and to stabilize the resulting tetrahedral intermediate. This function could be carried out by “acid”, H,O+ in aqueous solvent.
Biotechnology, 2E, Vol. 9, Enzymes, Biomass, Food and Feed by Gerald Reed, T. W. Nagodawithana