By Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, Jean-Claude Carel, Yves Christen
This quantity presents the reader with a pathophysiological viewpoint at the position of CNS in puberty and formative years, ranging from genetic/molecular points, facing structural/imaging adjustments and resulting in physical/behavioral features. hence, popular investigators all for either animal and human learn shared contemporary information in addition to total appraisal of suitable questions round CNS keep an eye on of puberty and formative years. without doubt that this quantity will motivate these excited about both clinical study or scientific perform or either within the interesting box of puberty and adolescence.
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Extra resources for Brain Crosstalk in Puberty and Adolescence
33 on the other hand, an INAH3 neuronal number in the male range was observed (Garcia-Falgueras and Swaab 2008). More recently, the introduction of neuroimaging techniques has allowed in vivo assessment of the brain, thus enabling larger-scale projects involving more substantial subject samples and a more flexible study design. Several imaging studies have investigated the brains of individuals with GD. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examining brain activation during a task of mental spatial rotation in MFs showed a divergence from the natal sex in the recruitment of parietal regions subserving this function (Carrillo et al.
CAIS is often discovered at puberty because of amenorrhea. Most remarkably, individuals with CAIS have a female gender identity and gender role and they are sexually attracted to men, thereby providing strong evidence that, in the absence of testosterone, a female-typical gender identity develops. Additional evidence for a role of testosterone in the development of male-typical characteristics comes from genetic women (46, XX) with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These women have been exposed prenatally to excessive amounts of androgen due to a mutation in the gene encoding 21-hydroxylase, which is responsible for the conversion of progesterone into deoxycorticosterone and that of 17-dehydroxyprogesterone into 11, deoxycortisol in the adrenal glands.
This experiment revealed that the perinatal and peripubertal periods of masculinization of male sexual behavior are not two separate critical periods of sensitivity to organizing effects of testosterone. Instead, the two periods of masculinization are driven by the two naturally occurring elevations in gonadal hormones. To explore possible neural mechanisms of peripubertal organizational effects of gonadal hormones, cell birthdating experiments in male and female rats revealed sex differences in the addition of new cells, including both neurons and glia, to sexually dimorphic cell groups in the hypothalamus and medial amygdala.
Brain Crosstalk in Puberty and Adolescence by Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, Jean-Claude Carel, Yves Christen