Soberón, Mario's Bt resistance : characterization and strategies for GM crops PDF

By Soberón, Mario

ISBN-10: 178064437X

ISBN-13: 9781780644370

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02 in populations from Florida and Texas, respectively, indicating that resistant alleles could be found in US populations. In Argentina, there was unexpected damage to Cry1F maize fields caused by D. saccharalis in the north-eastern region of San Luis. At this location, pest pressure was exceptionally high because it is an area with high temperatures, high amounts of sunshine and mild winters, with a long frostfree period and high moisture due to irrigation. Refuges were not used in the areas planted with Bt maize and neither were there rotations with susceptible crops established in the area, which represents an environment in which more generations of the pest develop compared with other areas (ASA, 2013; Edelstein, 2013; INTA, 2013).

A. , R. ) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) populations in Mexico to commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Economic Entomology 93, 963–970. D. ) (2013) Informe de la Red de Monitoreo Sistemático de Insectos Diciembre/2013. Red de Monitoreo Sistemático de Insectos 1(3), Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuária, Buenos Aires. ar/documentos/red-de-monitoreosistematico-de-insectos-diciembre-2013 (accessed 13 October 2014). Embrapa (2013) Ações Emergenciais Propostas pela Embrapa para o Manejo Integrado de 34 R.

It is important to note that in the Brazilian cerrado region, annual crops of maize, soybeans and cotton begin in October and extend through to June (Embrapa, 2013). Additionally, there is the implementation of the ‘green bridge’ that is formed by the additional cultivation of sorghum, millet and beans (Embrapa, 2013). Some of the GM seeds used in this region are not certified, so it is unclear what 31 amount of toxin is being produced by the Bt plants that are being used. , 2011) are being implemented either at less than the recommended level or are not being implemented at all (Grigolli and Lourenção, 2013).

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Bt resistance : characterization and strategies for GM crops producing bacillus thuringiensis toxins by Soberón, Mario

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