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Extra resources for Calculation of Road Traffic Noise
See text for explanation Although such changes were predicted by Jeppsson (1990) they were not fully explained by the model – at the time of publication, Jeppsson’s model was one of the first efforts to produce a global oceanic model based on the temporal cyclicity of microfossils and lithology. Subsequent studies showed that primo episodes had generally low carbon and oxygen isotopic values whereas secundo episodes had high such values (Samtleben et al. 1996; Bickert et al. 1997). By including the complex arrays of biological and physical fractionation of the carbon and oxygen stable isotopes and oceanography, the Jeppsson model has therefore been scrutinized and new, Silurian global events 31 competing models have been developed.
With time more emphasize has been put on explaining the profound carbon isotope excursions. One long-standing problem has been to explain where carbon was buried during the carbon isotope excursions. This may be a matter of correlation problems and the fact that deep oceanic sediments from the middle Paleozoic is lacking due to continental drift and consummation of oceanic plates in subduction zones. This lack of corresponding organic-rich shales led Cramer and Saltzman (2007) to develop the two prevailing oceanic models further.
Fig. 10. The stratigraphic range of the Lau Event (grey area), the position of datum points, and the diversity changes in conodonts (grey – globally, black – Gotland). Conodont stratigraphy and biodiversity data from Jeppsson (2005) and Jeppsson et al. (2007), respectively. Reef data from Calner (2005a). Stable isotope data from (Calner and Eriksson 2006b) and from Samtleben et al. (2000). Sequence stratigraphy from Eriksson and Calner (in press). Stippled pattern marks influx of sand-sized siliciclastics into the basin.
Calculation of Road Traffic Noise by Dept.of Transport