By Daniel E. Atkinson
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Extra resources for Cellular Energy Metabolism and its Regulation
These relate to regula tion and the maintenance of biological homeostasis. One need only consider the problems of regulating the 1200 enzymes mentioned above, catalyzing 1200 reactions with no c o m m o n reactant, to realize how enormously the problem of regulation is simplified by the use of A T P . W h e n all sequences are stoichiometrically coupled by A T P , they may all be regulated through A T P interactions. The types of metabolic correlation and control mechan isms that have evolved, based on the A T P / A D P / A M P system, will be dis cussed in Chapters 4 and 6.
This generalization has been stated above, in different words, in the statement that N A D P is a primary coupling agent, linking degradative sequences to reductive biosynthesis, whereas N A D plays a more local role within the degradative portion of metabolism. The functional distinction between N A D and N A D P supplies an excellent illustration of the resemblance of living systems to consciously designed mechanisms. The phosphate group on the adenosine of N A D P has no significant effect on the reactivity of the nicotinamide ring or on the reduction potential of the compound.
The general considerations of Figure 2-2 are applied to the specific case of the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-SCoA in Figure 2-3. This figure is schematic and not drawn to scale, but it illustrates the major point under consideration: the use of activating groups such as lipoate and coenzyme A allows organisms to avoid high concentrations of any intermediate. Some important activated intermediates are listed in Table 2-1. All of these resemble AcSCoA in the important feature that the activated group is attached to the remainder of the molecule by a bond that is characterized by a large negative value of the standard free energy of hydrolysis.
Cellular Energy Metabolism and its Regulation by Daniel E. Atkinson