Cellular Energy Metabolism and its Regulation by Daniel E. Atkinson PDF

By Daniel E. Atkinson

ISBN-10: 0120661500

ISBN-13: 9780120661503

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These relate to regula­ tion and the maintenance of biological homeostasis. One need only consider the problems of regulating the 1200 enzymes mentioned above, catalyzing 1200 reactions with no c o m m o n reactant, to realize how enormously the problem of regulation is simplified by the use of A T P . W h e n all sequences are stoichiometrically coupled by A T P , they may all be regulated through A T P interactions. The types of metabolic correlation and control mechan­ isms that have evolved, based on the A T P / A D P / A M P system, will be dis­ cussed in Chapters 4 and 6.

This generalization has been stated above, in different words, in the statement that N A D P is a primary coupling agent, linking degradative sequences to reductive biosynthesis, whereas N A D plays a more local role within the degradative portion of metabolism. The functional distinction between N A D and N A D P supplies an excellent illustration of the resemblance of living systems to consciously designed mechanisms. The phosphate group on the adenosine of N A D P has no significant effect on the reactivity of the nicotinamide ring or on the reduction potential of the compound.

The general considerations of Figure 2-2 are applied to the specific case of the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-SCoA in Figure 2-3. This figure is schematic and not drawn to scale, but it illustrates the major point under consideration: the use of activating groups such as lipoate and coenzyme A allows organisms to avoid high concentrations of any intermediate. Some important activated intermediates are listed in Table 2-1. All of these resemble AcSCoA in the important feature that the activated group is attached to the remainder of the molecule by a bond that is characterized by a large negative value of the standard free energy of hydrolysis.

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Cellular Energy Metabolism and its Regulation by Daniel E. Atkinson


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