By David C. Bader
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Additional info for Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations
The climate’s adjustment time itself depends on equilibrium sensitivity and on the rate and depth to which heat is mixed into the ocean, because the depth of heat penetration tends to be greater in models with greater sensitivity (Hansen et al. 1985; Wigley and Schlesinger 1985). Accounting for ocean heat uptake complicates many attempts at estimating sensitivity from observations, as outlined below. , Hansen et al. 1984; Roe and Baker 2007). Small changes in the strengths of feedback processes can create large changes in sensitivity, making it difficult to tightly constrain climate sensitivity by restricting the strength of each relevant feedback process.
These are all outcomes of the model, determined by the set of reductive rules that govern the model’s evolution. Suppose the topic under study is how ocean temperatures affect rainfall over Africa. 4. A Snapshot in Time of Infrared Radiation Escaping to Space in a Version of Atmospheric Model AM2 Constructed at NOAA’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL 2004). The largest amount of energy emitted is in the darkest areas, and the least is in the brightest areas. This version of the atmospheric model has higher resolution than that used for simulations in the CMIP3 archive (50 km rather than 200 km), but, other than resolution, it uses the same numerical algorithm.
The atmospheric component of CCSM3 is a spectral model. Three different resolutions of CCSM3 are supported. The highest resolution is the configuration used for climatechange simulations, with a T85 grid for atmosphere and land and a grid with around 1º resolution for ocean and sea ice but finer meridional resolution near the equator. The second resolution is a T42 grid for atmosphere and land with 1º ocean and sea-ice resolution. A lowerresolution version, designed for paleoclimate studies, has T31 resolution for atmosphere and land and a 3º version of ocean and sea ice.
Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations by David C. Bader