By Hakho Lee; Donhee Ham; Robert M Westervelt
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Extra resources for CMOS biotechnology
For a good physical discussion of the basic equations and a wide range of fluid flow phenomena, the reader is referred to . The most common body force in most fluid systems is the gravitational force, though for most microfluidic (and smaller) flows this body force is generally negligible. Electric fields can also apply forces and we refer the reader to review articles [1, 2]. 6) we have also assumed that the fluid viscosity µ is constant. In some microfluidic flows, temperature variations occur and these can cause significant variations in µ, which can modify the velocity profiles.
5. From Eq. A. Stone ∇ ⋅ u = 0. 5) In Cartesian coordinates u = (ux, uy, uz), the continuity equation is written ∂ux/∂x + ∂uy/∂y + ∂uz/∂z = 0, which may be considered a constraint on the allowed form of the velocity variations. 2. 6) where fb represents body forces (per unit volume) that act on the fluid. 6) refers to the product of mass and acceleration (per unit volume) when following a fluid element (think of a dyed piece of fluid) moving along with the flow. 6) corresponds to all of the forces acting on the fluid element.
Significant numbers of air bubbles form, especially in long channels or near intersections and corners. Additionally, even relatively large channels that have features such as pits, grooves, lateral pockets, or slits can be expected to require at least some massaging to remove trapped air bubbles. Low surface tension solvents, such as ethanol, can be used to help mitigate the formation of air bubbles in microfluidic channels. Once a continuous fluid path is established between two reservoirs, an electric field can be used to help drive fluid through the channel.
CMOS biotechnology by Hakho Lee; Donhee Ham; Robert M Westervelt