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Example text

Indeed, it is.  However, it is germane to point out in which sense certain terms are used in this book, how they particularly apply to ungulate behavior, and also which behaviors of hoofed mammals are considered to fall into the central realm of a given term or category and which ones appear to be more peripheral to it, since the best approach, given this Tower­of­Babel situation, may be to find out in which sense a given Page 15 term can be used without any doubt and then to proceed from this central realm to cases which appear to be related but are not beyond possible reservations.

In such cases, the single recipient has much greater latitude as to whether he relates the sender's signal to himself and reacts to it than in situations in which he is individually and "very personally" addressed.  However, as compared to a face­to­face situation, this communication is more anonymous, in that the recipient's reaction is not as directly under the sender's control.  From here it is only a small step, or a more or less gradual transition respectively, to cases which obviously do not belong to communication anymore—at least when we take this term seriously and try to keep it free of undue inflation.

This "degree of freedom" in the recipient's response is significantly different from the principle of causation in classic mechanics and largely also from the stimulus­response principle in physiology.  But the alternatives "yes'' or "no" are absolutely possible, and both adequately meet the question.  The sender may cease signaling, or he may repeat the signal, or use a different signal, or take stronger measures such as physical attack. ) to the male's displays, she is ready to tolerate his mounts.

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Communication and expression in hoofed mammals by F.R. Walther

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