By Paul Foglino
Presents ideas for attaining excessive ratings at the AP chemistry examination and comprises full-length perform checks.
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In the presence of the nickel catalyst used for hydrogenation, some of the cis-isomers become trans. This means that there is a proportion of trans-fats in products made using partially hardened oils. There is growing concern that trans-fats may be bad for health. The formation of trans-fats contributes to the hardening process because a molecule of a trans-fat is straight, rather than kinked. This means that its shape is very much like the straight chain of a fully saturated fat. 1). 20 a) Draw skeletal formulae for cis-octadec-9-enoic acid (oleic acid) and transoctadec-9-enoic acid (elaidic acid).
10 į The two-step preparation of phenylamine from benzene. 43 Amines Test yourself 8 Describe the mechanism, using appropriate curly arrows, for the nucleophilic substitution of 1-chloropropane with ammonia. 9 When preparing primary alkylamines from halogenoalkanes: a) excess ammonia is used. Why is this? ) b) a solution of ammonia in ethanol is used rather than ammonia in water. Why is this? 11). The aromatic amine dissolves in excess concentrated HCl forming a salt. The free amine can be liberated from the solution by adding sodium hydroxide solution and is then separated from the mixture by steam distillation.
So, CH3CH2NH2 is ethylamine, C6H5NH2 is phenylamine and CH3CH2NHCH3 is ethylmethylamine. 3). 3 Ǡ The structures and names of primary, secondary and tertiary amines containing the methyl group. 40 CH3 N H methylamine (a primary amine) CH3 N CH3 CH3 N H CH3 dimethylamine (a secondary amine) trimethylamine (a tertiary amine) The properties and reactions of amines More complex amines The prefix ‘amino-’ is used in compounds that have a second functional group which appears at the end of the name. This is the case with amino acids that O contain the group.
Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam (2014 Edition) by Paul Foglino