By U. Muehlberger
This booklet investigates paintings relationships at the border among employment and self-employment. Bringing jointly fiscal, sociological and criminal study methods, it analyses why enterprises installation established self-employed employees, why members offer this kind of labor and during which casual and formal mechanism dependency is created.
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Additional info for Dependent Self-Employment: Workers on the Border between Employment and Self-Employment
Since 1998, collaborators get family allowance and an allowance during parental leave as well as during periods in hospital (but not for illness without hospitalisation). The legislative decree 38/2000 extended the obligatory insurance against accidents and professional diseases to collaborators. The fiscal law of 2000 obliged the employers to pay the collaborators on a monthly basis. The possibility to work on the basis of a contract of continuous collaboration was extended beyond professional and artistic activities, allowing also manual and non-professional workers to supply labour as collaborators.
In contrast, it is simply assumed that dependent outsourcing does not change the nature of incentive conflicts as described above. Fernandez et al. (1998, 2000) compare the European and US trucking industries and find that 'most of the owner-operators are quasiintegrated into larger organizations, which completely manages the work of the owner-operators' (Fernandez et al. 2000: 304). They argue that this hybrid form of governance is generally more efficient than the vertical integration of trucks and drivers as it solves moral hazard problems related to the use of the trucks and simultaneously allows the quasi-integrated organisation to achieve economies of scale and density.
2005) states that there were more than half a million 'parasubordinati' (Le. 5 per cent of those in employment. 1 per cent of the labour force working as self-employed for only one contractor and being bound by the instructions of the employer or contract partner (in terms of labour time and methods) in 2001 (Statistik Austria 2002). Further and even more important, these international surveys indicate a rapid growth of hierarchical forms of outsourcing (Eiro 2002; Chapter 4 in this book). 3 The special case of franchising One important group in the grey zone between self-employment and normal employment are franchisees.
Dependent Self-Employment: Workers on the Border between Employment and Self-Employment by U. Muehlberger