By Anna Bramwell
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Additional resources for Ecology in the 20th Century: A History
The very awareness of nature as an Other signifies man's loss of an organic connection with it. The assumption that the world can be seen objectively is challenged by Hayek. 32 According to this, trained scientists believe that the organic and spontaneously creative world of man can be controlled, planned and organised much as man treats the inanimate and animal world. Like Glacken, Hayek places this shift to the belief that man can and should control the earth in the early to mid-nineteenth century, but attributes it to the influence of Comte and Jeremy Bentham.
13 It extended the web of relationships from the physical sphere, energy and resources cycled between 41 Ecology in the 20th Century sun, water, plants and animals. It showed that habitat and animals, group and individual, instinctive drives and learned adaptations, had to be seen together and in context, if animals, and by implication man, were to be understood. , HAECKEL THE ECOLOGIST If Haeckel failed fully to develop this key concept, then it is obviously necessary to justify his inclusion as a founding father; the invention of the word itself could be a trivial connection.
50 If South American Indian tribes are not only better, but happier, than Western man, with the leisure to sit around gossiping and appreciating life, tlifn this is a strong argument for ecologists against agriculture ahd in favour of the huntergatherer way of life. However, the hunter-gatherer tribes lacked that crucial component of the ecologist, an articulate intelligenstia. The only lament remaining to us on the transition from one way of life to another is the parable of Cain and Abel. The speech of a nineteenth-century Red Indian chief to an American President on the proposed purchase of Indian land has become a totem for fundamentalist ecologists like Rudolf Bahro (at a recent Schumacher Conference, this speech was cited several times by different speakers).
Ecology in the 20th Century: A History by Anna Bramwell