Read e-book online Environmental science PDF

By V K Ahluwalia; Sunita Malhotra

ISBN-10: 142007069X

ISBN-13: 9781420070699

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2 H20 + hv ^ 2 H2+ 0 2 These processes complete the oxygen cycle in nature. The oxygen content in the atmosphere remains more or less constant. The flow chart for oxygen cycle is represented as shown below in Fig. 8. Atmosphere 0 2 and C02 Photosynthesis by -green plants f- Respiration 0 2is used and r CO2 + H20 released C02is used and Combustion process 0 2is used “ I 0 2formed : CO2 + H20 released CO2 + H2 O Decay of dead plants requires O2 Fig. 8: Oxygen Cycle Flow Sheet There may be imbalance in the oxygen cycle by deforestation which reduces the extent of photosynthesis (which is a major source of oxygen in the atmosphere) and hence the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere is reduced.

Sodium chloride in moderate amounts is necessary for the healthy heart conditions. However, excess sodium is a curse and it leads to a variety of ailments. Sodium cycle includes isolation of salt from the oceans, its use by the plants and animals and its return back to the land or oceans by decay of dead plants and animals. 4 Potassium Cycle Potassium (like sodium) is also a micronutrient and is vital to all living organisms. It is found in nature in the form of its salts like camallite (KC1. 2 H 2 O), kainite (KC1.

In the gaseous phase, sulphur is present as hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide. Sulphur (as S02) enters the atmosphere from several routes like volcanic eruptions, combustion of fossil fuels and from various metallurgical operations. Hydrogen sulphide enters the atmosphere by the putrefaction of organic matter by bacteria and fungi. In the atmosphere, S 0 2 is oxidised to S 0 3 which comes to the land in the form of dilute solution of H2 S0 4 (acid rain). Hydrogen sulphide in the atmosphere is oxidised to sulphur dioxide by ozone; the reaction is catalysed by particulates present in the atmosphere.

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Environmental science by V K Ahluwalia; Sunita Malhotra

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