By D.F. Horrobin
Biochemistry is the examine of the chemistry of dwelling organisms, of the ways that nutrition is used to serve all of the many desires of the physique. Biochemistry is heavily attached with foodstuff, the learn of the kinds and quantities of assorted fabrics required within the vitamin. Biochemistry can also be inextricably int~rtwined with endo crinology, the learn of hormones, for many of the hormones exert their activities via changing the behaviour of chemical reactions in the physique. The crucial challenge in biochemistry is that of the availability of strength. strength is required for a large number of reasons of which muscular task is the easiest identified. power is needed for digestion, and for the functioning of the kidney, the liver, the mind and all of the different organs within the physique. power can be crucial for the increase of the advanced natural molecules of which the physique is con structed. finally, lots of the strength applied in the world comes from the solar. crops may be able to faucet this strength resource without delay by way of the method of photosynthesis. through the use of pigments, particularly the golf green chlorophyll, vegetation can seize the strength of sun and use it to accumulate complicated components corresponding to fats, carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acids. the one uncooked fabrics required are carbon dioxide, water and easy inorganic elements reminiscent of nitrates which are extracted from the soil.
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Extra resources for Essential Biochemistry, Endocrinology and Nutrition
The relative amounts of energy which are freed by the burning of 1 g of fat, 1 g of carbohydrate and 1 g of protein. the same number of calories as does the same amount of food when oxidized in the body itself. Each gram of protein burnt yields about 5·3 kcal. Fat yields about 9·3 kcaljg while carbohydrate yields about 5·3 kcaljg. Thus a given weight of fat releases more calories than a given weight of any other food and it is therefore not surprising that excess food is stored in the form of fat.
4. Males are infertile and while females can conceive they cannot carry normal infants to term. In these days of readily available enriched sources of vitamins, it is not impossible, especially in infants, for an overdose to occur. The characteristics are an itchy rash, severe headache, weakness, loss of appetite and pain in the long bones. The condition is reversed within a few days of stopping the high intake of the vitamin. VITAMIN D Vitamin D2 (calciferol) and vitamin D3 are closely related compounds, both of which have vitamin activity.
In chapter 2 we saw that DNA contains four types of bases, adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). It has been found that the sequence in which these bases occur on the DNA molecule determines the sequence in which the amino acids occur in the protein molecule. It has also been found that in order to specify one amino acid a sequence of three bases "is required-the sequence of bases which specifies each amino acid is sometimes known as the genetic code. This may perhaps be best understood if specific examples are used.
Essential Biochemistry, Endocrinology and Nutrition by D.F. Horrobin