By Ralph Gwatkin
Fertilization in mammals mostly happens in the oviduct, the place it really is really inaccessible to review. notwithstanding, due to painstaking learn, such a lot of it conducted during the last 5 years, this barrier to experimentation has been mostly conquer via the improvement of in vitro fertilization innovations for no less than eleven various species, together with guy. the outcome has been a speedy raise in our wisdom of the physiological and bio chemical mechanisms thinking about the fertilization approach. the purpose of this ebook, that is an extension of my contemporary assessment of telephone floor interactions in fertilization (Gwatkin, 1976), is to provide a quick, yet good documented, account of the hot wisdom that has been attained. even supposing this e-book offers with mammalian fertilization mechanisms, i've got integrated a few fresh experiments on am phibian and invertebrate gametes to complement the mammalian photograph. this data is very worthy because the rela tively huge variety of eggs on hand from those decrease varieties has complicated our wisdom of sure fertilization mechanisms past what's identified in mammals. even if, within the curiosity of brevity, i've got passed over info of morphology and minor varia tions among species. For those, and different facets now not coated the following, the reader is noted the books of Austin (1965, 1968), vii viii PREFACE Austin and brief (1972), Metz and Monroy (1969), Monroy (1965), Lord Rothschild (1956a), and Zamboni (l971a).
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27 28 CHAPTER 4 The number of cilia lining the wall of the ampulla is under estrogen control, as demonstrated by experiments in rabbits, in which loss of cilia followed ovariectomy and was restored by injecting estradiol (Rumery and Eddy, 1974). , 1957). The site of fertilization in most mammals is the ampulla. However, fertilization in the ferret may occur in the bursa and in insectivores within the follicle. Eggs must be fertilized within a relatively short period since they have a limited life span (Table 1).
This muscular activity appears to be initiated by an as yet unidentified factor emanating from the cumulus oophorus (Blandau, 1969). Progressive movement of the eggs is brought about by the beating of the ampullary cilia and is unrelated to muscular activity. , 1976). 27 28 CHAPTER 4 The number of cilia lining the wall of the ampulla is under estrogen control, as demonstrated by experiments in rabbits, in which loss of cilia followed ovariectomy and was restored by injecting estradiol (Rumery and Eddy, 1974).
This synchrony is achieved in most species by a well-defined period of estrus which restricts mating to time of ovulation. Chapter 5 Fertilization In Vitro As already indicated, recent progress in our knowledge of fertilization mechanisms is due primarily to the development of in vitro fertilization techniques. , by Shenk in 1878; see review by Thibault in 1969), the first successful method was not devised until 1954, when Dauzier et al. obtained cleavage of rabbit eggs after exposing them to sperm recovered from the uterus.
Fertilization Mechanisms in Man and Mammals by Ralph Gwatkin