By Bhatia, S. C
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Additional info for Food Biotechnology
E. a large amount of inoculum is used); and the cells in the inoculum are in the late exponential phase of growth. 2 Typical growth profile of microorganisms in a submerged culture 42 Food biotechnology adaptation period in a new environment. The lag phase is followed by exponential growth, during which the cell mass increases exponentially. Eventually, as the nutrients are exhausted and inhibitory products of metabolism build up, the culture enters a stationary phase. Ultimately, starvation causes cell death and lysis, and hence the biomass concentration declines.
The manufacture involves a microbial process by which the milk sugar, lactose is converted to lactic acid. As the acid accumulates, the structure of the milk protein changes (curdling) and thus the texture of the product. Other variables such as temperature and the composition of the milk, also contribute to the particular features of different products. 7 Importance of yeasts in foods Saccharomyces species are the most widely used yeasts. The leading species S. cerevisiae is used in the manufacture of many foods, with special strains used for the leavening of bread and for the production of ale, wine, alcohol, glycerol and invertase.
Yeasts can be found everywhere in nature, especially on plants and fruits. After fruits fall off the tree, fruits become rotten through the activity of molds, which form alcohol and carbon dioxide from the sugars in it. Yeasts are grown in the industry in big tanks with sugary water in the presence of oxygen. When the desired amount of yeast is reached the liquid is Micro-organisms associated with food 21 pumped out, and the yeast is then dried. Nothing else is added in the production of yeast.
Food Biotechnology by Bhatia, S. C