By F. John Vernberg
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Extra info for Functional Adaptations of Marine Organisms
03'^ ° Particulate fraction of iron and silicon is highly variable and may exceed dissolved fraction by up to 2 or 3 orders of magnitude. * Livingstone (1963). ^ Range of averages for surface waters of the major oceans. Concen tration increases with depth to a range of averages of 4 3 - 1 5 0 μλί (after Arm strong, 1965). Chester and Stoner (1974). , 1979). ^ Range for dissolved metal in 16 drainage basins in the United States (after Kopp and Kroner, 1969). 2. Marine Primary Producers 35 toxicity.
1 After Rice and Ferguson (1975). division occurs and the rate of cell division depends on the metabolic rates as affected by altered internal salt concentrations. Adaptive adjustment of the inter nal salt concentration must proceed rapidly, since cell division rates of euryhaline diatoms at different salinities do not change as a result of conditioning to these salinities (Williams, 1964). Isolates of oceanic species divide at over half maximum rates at salinities above 18-24%o. 5-8%o. The response of neritic species is intermediate to that of oceanic and estuarine forms.
Surface export of Syringodium filiforme represented 60-100% of the leaf production of this plant, whereas surface export of Thalassia testudinum represented only 1% of its production. In Florida, red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, drop leaves year-round, but the peak period in June represents 60% of the year's total (Heald and Odum, 1970). For low salt marsh species along the eastern seaboard of the United States, the peak standing crop occurs in late summer to early fall with a gradient from north to south.
Functional Adaptations of Marine Organisms by F. John Vernberg