By Takashi Nakamura, Lawrence Heilbronn
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Extra info for Handbook on Secondary Particle Production And Transport by High-energy Heavy Ions
For example, the dependence on target mass can be clearly seen comparing the 400 MeVhucIeon C + C system with the 400 MeVhucleon C + Pb system (Figs. 19). Comparing the 400 MeVhucleon C + Pb and Xe + Pb systems (Figs. 27) shows a good example of the dependence on projectile mass. Most of the neutrons in this high-energy, forward region come from the breakup of the projectile and direct knock-on processes. 5 times the incoming beam energy per nucleon can be produced by these processes. At energies below 20 MeV, the spectra are dominated by the breakup of the target.
10] that the total yield shows very little dependence on target mass. 5x 1 0-6 E; (AF3+ A:") 2 N p AP Ny3 ZP 27 Secondaly Neufron Yieldsfrom Thick Targets 33 where NT and Np are the neutron numbers of the target and projectile, AT and AP are the mass numbers of the target and projectile, Z p is the atomic number of the projectile, and Epis the incident energy per nucleon. 28 show the double-differential thick-target yields from all the systems measured by Kurosawa, et al. at the HIMAC facility at NIRS, Chiba, Japan.
29. The statistical and systematic (normalization) uncertainties are not shown in order to provide an uncluttered display of the data. The principle investigators of the HIMAC experiments reported statistical uncertainties of 2 to 5% for the low-to-mid energy ranges (5 to 400 MeV), with uncertainties increasing to about 30% for the highest energies. The uncertainty in the number of beam particles incident upon the targets was estimated to be less than 3%. The uncertainty in solid angle acceptance due to detector size was determined to be less than lo%, and the uncertainty in the correction for detector efficiency was estimated to be about 10%.
Handbook on Secondary Particle Production And Transport by High-energy Heavy Ions by Takashi Nakamura, Lawrence Heilbronn