By Charles A. McAuliffe (auth.)
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Extra info for Hydrogen and Energy
Operating pressures of up to 10 3 atmospheres are used. In a further reaction vessel additional steam is added in order that Production of Hydrogen 27 unwanted carbon monoxide can react to give more hydrogen and also carbon dioxide (the shift reaction). The latter is usually removed by scrubbing with either water or aqueous carbonate solution. + 2 + 2nH 2 0-+ nC0 2 + (3n + 1)H 2 An alternative to steam reforming is the reforming of petroleum naphtha under pressure. The purpose of such an operation in a refinery is to upgrade the octane rating of gasoline.
E. town gas) in retorts. As stated earlier, where gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons are available then these materials are the ones preferred for hydrogen manufacture. Vapour phase reaction leads to a very much simpler and cheaper plant, which requires less labour and is much more thermally efficient than a coal-based plant. For example, the thermal efficiency for the steam reforming process is about 72 %, whilst that of coal gasification is around 53%, and this is reflected in overall production costs.
2 Schematic diagram showing unipolar and bipolar cell construction. 0 and H represent oxygen and hydrogen evolution. (Reproduced from reference 6 with permission) are separated by power diaphragms to prevent gas mixing. A large iron vat holds the alkali electrolyte, and electrodes of alternative polarity are suspended in the vat. These electrodes consist of flat sheets of mild steel welded to steel bus bars. Plates are heavily nickel-plated, but the cathodes are left plain. Production of Hydrogen 31 Usually, a bag or skirt of asbestos is used as a diaphragm to maintain separation of the gases.
Hydrogen and Energy by Charles A. McAuliffe (auth.)