By Ph.E.A. Maier Quevauviller and E.A. Maier (Eds.)
The participation in interlaboratory stories and using qualified Reference fabrics (CRMs) are generally recognized instruments for the verification of the accuracy of analytical measurements and so they shape an essential component of quality controls structures utilized by many laboratories, e.g. in accreditation schemes. As a reaction to the necessity to enhance the standard of environmental research, the ecu fee has been energetic long ago fifteen years, via BCR task (now renamed criteria, Measurements and trying out Programme) within the service provider of sequence of interlaboratory experiences regarding professional laboratories in quite a few analytical fields (inorganic, hint natural and speciation research utilized to a wide selection of environmental matrices). The BCR and its successor have the duty of supporting ecu laboratories to enhance the standard of measurements in analytical sectors that are very important for the eu Union (biomedical, agriculture, nutrition, surroundings and industry); those are often performed in help of EC rules, business wishes, alternate, tracking actions (including atmosphere, agriculture, healthiness and protection) and, extra ordinarily, while technical problems bog down a very good comparison of information between EC laboratories. The collaborative initiatives performed to this point have put the BCR within the place of moment global CRM manufacturer (after NIST within the USA).Interlaboratory reviews and Certification of Reference fabrics for Environmental research provides an account of the significance of reference fabrics for the standard regulate of environmental research and describes intimately the strategies by means of BCR to organize environmental reference fabrics, together with points relating to sampling, stabilization, homogenisation, homogeneity and balance checking out, institution of reference (or qualified) values, and use of reference fabrics. Examples of environmental CRMs produced through BCR in the final 15 years are given, which symbolize greater than 70 CRMs protecting types of fabrics (plants, organic fabrics, waters, sediments, soils and sludges, coals, ash and dirt fabrics) qualified for quite a number chemical parameters (major and hint components, chemical species, PAHs, PCBs, insecticides and dioxins).The ultimate component of the publication describes easy methods to organise development schemes for the assessment technique and/or laboratory functionality. Examples of interlaboratory reports (learning scheme, talent trying out and intercomparison in aid to prenormative study) also are given.
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Additional info for Interlaboratory Studies and Certified Reference Materials for Environmental Analysis: The BCR Approach
1. Full development q[a method In particular in environmental monitoring, unknown and complex samples have to be analysed. It is very common that no standardised method exists for the requested study. No reliable model has been published but only approaching methods are given in the literature. g. digestion, extraction, purification or separation, a calibration in case of relative and comparative methods and a final detection. Each action undertaken in one of these steps is a potential source of error that adds to the total uncertainty of the determination.
G. a digest or an extract, and re-evaluates the performance and adapts the procedure if necessary. Finally, the validation passes to real samples. After each new step the analyst evaluates if the conclusions drawn in the previous step are still valid. If not, he has to come back and adjust conditions. In addition to the reliability of the method the analyst has to evaluate how it will behave in the real situation of daily 'routine measurements' in the hands of the technicians and under economic constraints; he has to estimate the robustness or ruggedness of the method.
In other words, the results of the determination and not only the final measurement should be linked through an unbroken chain of comparisons. This link must be demonstrated. Depending on the type of analytical method applied and the property of interest to be determined, various steps may be necessary to demonstrate the link between the end signal recorded from the detector and the reference to which it is linked. For microbiology measurements, calibration is not performed as such. In fact the analyst often counts colonies (bacteria) or plaques (holes) in cultures (viruses, phages) or 'positive tubes' (most probable number techniques) which are supposed to be issued from one single biological particle.
Interlaboratory Studies and Certified Reference Materials for Environmental Analysis: The BCR Approach by Ph.E.A. Maier Quevauviller and E.A. Maier (Eds.)