By Robert L. Snipes
This treatise combines a close technique that's basic to stick to and reconstruct, and will be universally used to figure out the outside quarter or tubular organs, during this unique case improvement for the intestines. it's in particular applicable for giant gut, yet can be utilized for small gut additionally. the good virtue is the applicability on the macroscopic and microscopic degrees, measuring the full gut for decision of a floor or basal zone, and utilizing a wide encompassing sampling strategy to receive an element of floor enlargment as a result of such structural entitities as folds and plicae. a method to figure out the issue of raise as a result of microvilli is additionally brought. different factors which could impression the measurements are mentioned. software of the approach is gifted in the thought of scaling. a number of regression curves are provided to symbolize how intestinal floor region correlates with bodyweight. A unifying and correlating inspiration among morphology and morphometry is constructed. Over 20 species are included.
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Extra info for Intestinal Absorptive Surface in Mammals of Different Sizes
The rabbit had an astonishing factor of 25 (substantiated by Westergaard and Dietschy 1974). The latter authors argue, similar to Strocchi and Levitt (1993), that these measurements are largely theoretical. In their opinion, a mucous layer overlies the entire surface covering of the intestine, negating the advantage of the structural enlargements or at least warning that their existence should be taken into consideration. Sakata and von Engelhardt (1981) have described this layer in detail in the large intestine of rodents.
Warren warned against placing too much faith in the use of correction factors and formulas to determine surface enlargements, emphasizing that any measurement is a compromise, showing only trends and tendencies of the constantly changing states of contraction of not only the muscle components of the intestines, but also structures such as villi. Some authors (Herd and Harrop 1978; Martin et al. 1985; Bruorton and Perrin 1991) have attempted to counteract postmortum changes (especially in length) by measuring the excised tissue under water.
In one group of investigated animals, the mucosal surface appeared as classically described for humans, namely, a flat surface with pit-like openings to crypts, extending down as single tubular structures into the lamina propria (Fig. 3). A slight modification of this form is a funnel-shaped widening of the crypt opening in the form of a foveola. A second selection of animals was grouped together based on their mucosal surface appearance, namely, elevated ridges in looped configuration of varying heights and to different degrees of differen39 Table 8.
Intestinal Absorptive Surface in Mammals of Different Sizes by Robert L. Snipes