By E.-Bernhard Kley, Lars-Christian Wittig, Andreas Tünnermann (auth.), Jürgen Jahns, Karl-Heinz Brenner (eds.)
The carrying on with pattern in the direction of miniaturisation and integration, famous from electronics, is usually a significant component for optical procedure improvement. Many novel functions rely on the supply of appropriate elements and (sub-)systems that provide beneficial properties like small dimension, reasonable, robustness, power for integration with different applied sciences, and so on. this can be what micro-optics is set. For greater than two decades, there was consistent development within the zone of micro-optics. the aim of this ebook is to supply an outline of the newest actions on fabrication expertise, modelling and layout, structures integration and functions. The ebook brings jointly contributions from assorted components of micro-optics to explain the prestige in their paintings. Configurations in keeping with either, wave-guide and free-space optics are coated. The reader can count on updated info with many new effects. The ebook is meant for graduate scholars, academics in addition to researchers in industry.
Key good points:
- deals a state-of-the-art examine fabrication techologies for micro-optics
- presents medical heritage and modelling of optics on the micro-scale
- seems at ideas for measuring micro-optical part properties
- comprises a number of ideas and demonstrations for micro-optical systems
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Additional info for Microoptics: From Technology to Applications
_ ... , ' , I --,, , ~ :1___··-· ~ . -f ~~------------------------~~ ____ z3 q z1 z Fig. 2. 05. increasing influence of diffraction at the lens aperture. The edge of the lens acts like the zone of a Fresnel zone plate and thus, delivers an additional optical power to the lens. This diffractive power increases as the lens diameter decreases. In most cases of practical relevance, the optical function has to be treated as a superposition of both physical effects - refraction and diffraction.
In contrast to the conventional process, the development can be continued until the profile has reached the exposure depth (see Fig. 19b). In this case, the final profile is dependent on the exposure dose only. Moreover, the remaining resist is unexposed and this gives the possibility of applying a second lithographic step directly onto the resist profile. Microstructure Technology for Optical Component Fabrication 19 The different methods of analog lithography can be distinguished by the following working principle: First, writing technologies (laser beam writing and e-beam writing) use a small beam which will be scanned across the substrate in order to expose the pattern sequentially.
Examples of multifunctional surface profiles: (a) refractive micro lenses with a fresnel lens, (b) a linear grating, and (c) a diffractive beam shaping element on top. Pictures (b) and (c) courtesy of U. Zeitner, Fraunhofer IOF, Jena. realize a small profile depth, the profile error is small also. Thus, the total profile error is reduced to the error of the correction profile. For example, a beam-shaping element could be fabricated with the preform technique. In a first step, a reflow profile has to be fabricated that is as near as possible to the profile wanted.
Microoptics: From Technology to Applications by E.-Bernhard Kley, Lars-Christian Wittig, Andreas Tünnermann (auth.), Jürgen Jahns, Karl-Heinz Brenner (eds.)