By Kai Sundmacher, Achim Kienle, Hans Josef Pesch, Joachim F. Berndt, Gerhard Huppmann
Adopting a different, built-in engineering strategy, this article at the same time covers all elements of layout and operation, procedure research, optimization, tracking and regulate. It sincerely provides the a number of benefits of molten carbonate gas cells for the effective conversion of power, and in addition contains contemporary advancements during this cutting edge expertise. the complete is rounded off through an appendix that includes benchmark issues of equations and parameters.
very important examining for approach, chemical and gear engineers, in addition to these operating in strength expertise, chemists and electrochemists, fabrics scientists, and energy-supplying businesses.
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Extra info for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Most of these plants were installed for grid parallel operation, partially using their ability of loadfollowing operation. But this only may be an economical solution in very particular situations, because a MCFC system is always a base load power supply unit seen from the economical point of view. This is correlated to the relatively high system cost (at least presently) combined with an excellent electrical eﬃciency, which only can lead under steady and full time operation conditions to a high ‘economic eﬃciency’ meaning a short pay back period of the investment costs.
Typical problems such as leakages or failures of measurement sensors had to be eliminated. 3 Operation Experience been working continuously in a fully automatic mode and in May 2006 reached the remarkable value of 30,000 operating hours. This corresponds to an availability of 95% and a new long-term record for this type of fuel cell was established. It is worth mentioning that only slight hints of degradation were determined during the entire operating time. The main reason for this is the fact that the plant was mainly operated within the medium power range.
Especially the electrical inverter caused some failures of the fuel cell which could more or less be traced back to software problems. Thanks to some adjustments of the relevant programs it was possible to realize a stable operation mode of the fuel cell. Admittedly, the HotModule is currently not yet suitable for an isolated operation. The operation of the fuel cell plant requires a daily inspection of some peripheral devices. Furthermore, continuous maintenance with a frequency of several weeks or months is necessary.
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells by Kai Sundmacher, Achim Kienle, Hans Josef Pesch, Joachim F. Berndt, Gerhard Huppmann