Download PDF by Roland Winston; Juan C Miñano; Pablo Benítez; W T Welford: Nonimaging optics

By Roland Winston; Juan C Miñano; Pablo Benítez; W T Welford

ISBN-10: 0080479731

ISBN-13: 9780080479736

ISBN-10: 1417577436

ISBN-13: 9781417577439

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Similarly, the collecting angle is fixed. Thus, this is not a very flexible system, apart from the fact that it has a virtual collecting aperture. But it does have the theoretical maximum concentration ratio, and, if we admit such systems, it is another example of an ideal system. 6 IMAGE-FORMING MIRROR SYSTEMS In this section we examine the performance of mirror systems as concentrators. Concave mirrors have, of course, been used for many years as collectors for solar furnaces and the like. Historical material about such systems is given by Krenz (1976).

In Eq. 2) it turns out that the constant is the input side focal length, which we shall denote by f. From Eq. 3) and also, from Eq. 4) By substituting from Eq. 3) into Eq. 5) where qmax is the input semiangle. To see the significance of this result we recall that we showed that in an aplanatic system the focal length is a constant, independent of the distance h of the ray from the axis used to define it. Here we are using the generalized sense of “focal length” meaning the constant in Eq. 2), and aplanatism thus means that rays through all parts of the aperture of the system form images with the same magnification.

Thus, if an imaging optical system of a certain numerical aperture is used to form an image of a point source and if there are precisely no ray aberrations, the image of the point will not be indefinitely small. 8) where l is the wavelength of the light. This provides us with a tolerance level for ray aberrations below which we can say the aberrations are negligible. 10) must fall within a circle of radius given by Eq. 8). 6 would not depart from the ideal spherical shape by more than a specified amount, usually l/4.

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Nonimaging optics by Roland Winston; Juan C Miñano; Pablo Benítez; W T Welford

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