By Tamara L. Whited, Mark R. Stoll, Jens Ivo Engels, Richard C. Hoffmann, Hilde Ibsen, Wybren Verstegen
Of curiosity to scholars and teachers alike, this ebook offers a much-needed synthesis of the new literature on northern Europe's environmental background. starting with the Paleolithic interval and the recolonization of Europe after the Ice Age, this booklet maps out the main environmental traits within the background of the region's surroundings and its interplay with the human population.
The publication additionally highlights how dramatic occasions open air Europe, equivalent to the Tomboro volcanic eruption in Indonesia in 1815, had dramatic outcomes for the region's weather. Given the culturally varied nature of contemporary Europe, a necessary point of the publication is its identity of the typical subject matters that unite the interplay of the region's realms with the common environment.
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Extra info for Northern Europe: An Environmental History
A major site of sacrificial offerings is Gournay-sur-Aronde in northern France, where for three centuries prior to the Roman conquest hundreds of thousands of animals met sacrificial deaths. Weapons, too, were destroyed and deposited there, suggesting perceived links between natural and human powers. As much of our knowledge of northern European religions comes from Roman sources, it is to the Roman Era that we now turn. NORTHERN EUROPE ON THE PERIPHERY: THE ENVIRONMENTAL LOGIC OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE The Roman conquest of Italy proceeded gradually in the course of the third century BCE; Romans ultimately expelled the Boii, a Celtic tribe, from the Po Valley in the campaigns of 196 and 197 BCE.
Subsistence still depended on fishing and hunting terrestrial and marine mammals; cereal cultivation and herding only gradually assumed importance, earlier in Denmark and Scania, and later in adjacent areas. Even in the south, marked for- Early Agrarian Civilization The small winter hunting-fowling-fishing camp of ca. 4300 BCE at Bergschenhoek, illustrating the continuity of the Mesolithic type of settlement systems, subsistence, and perception of nature into the Early Neolithic in regions north of the loess.
However, little concrete evidence for absolute resource shortage or declining health due to population pressure has been located either in the Middle East, where agriculture originated, or in Europe. Population levels remained low throughout Europe in the late Mesolithic and into the early Neolithic; most of the continent, away from coasts, large lakes, and rivers, remained uninhabited. In addition, the forests and seas of northern Europe provided generously in postglacial times. Indeed, agriculture emerged in areas where resources were ample and secure, whether one looks at the Middle East or Europe.
Northern Europe: An Environmental History by Tamara L. Whited, Mark R. Stoll, Jens Ivo Engels, Richard C. Hoffmann, Hilde Ibsen, Wybren Verstegen