Download e-book for iPad: Order and Disorder in the World of Atoms by A. I. Kitaigorodskiy (auth.), S. Chomet (eds.)

By A. I. Kitaigorodskiy (auth.), S. Chomet (eds.)

ISBN-10: 0387900047

ISBN-13: 9780387900049

ISBN-10: 1461575591

ISBN-13: 9781461575597

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Extra resources for Order and Disorder in the World of Atoms

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Prolonged studies of the grain texture size and distribution in metallic articles have now thrown some light on the treatment of metals and have indicated how such treatment should be carried out. Another very important technological process connected with Order 35 the reorganization of crystal grains is annealing. If rolled or drawn metal is heated at a sufficiently high temperature, new crystals begin to grow in place of old. This secondary crystallization has a random orientation and gradually obliterates the texture.

This does not exhaust the differences between gases and liquids; another fundamental difference associated with the persistence of some order in liquids lies in the fact that some interatomic distances in liquids will be found more often than others. The interatomic distances that acquire this predominance are those which best approximate the close-packed arrangement. , the six closest neighbors 38 Order and Disorder in the World of Atoms are in contact with the central atom. These neighbors are marked by 1 in the figure.

There is of course no contradiction between the chemical formula of water and the structure illustrated in Fig. 19, in which the hydrogen atoms are shown in black. The structure of ice is very loose, as can be seen Fig. 19. The crystal structure from the large empty spaces in the of ice diagram. If we extend the structure above. the plane of the paper, these spaces will become broad tunnels penetrating the lattice. Apart from diamond, Fig. 18 shows the structure of graphite. The carbon atoms in graphite are arranged in layers, but these are not the layers of a close-packed structure.

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Order and Disorder in the World of Atoms by A. I. Kitaigorodskiy (auth.), S. Chomet (eds.)

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