Download e-book for iPad: Poles Apart: A Study in Contrasts by Antoni G. Lewkowicz

By Antoni G. Lewkowicz

ISBN-10: 077660497X

ISBN-13: 9780776604978

Poles Apart covers a number issues concerning the Arctic and Antarctic, together with the geography, glaciology and glacial background, ecology, residing assets, governance, and heritage of exploration. issues are tested individually for every pole and every subject is summarized via a rapporteur who attracts out the distinction and the similarities. This distinct structure permits the overseas specialists to explain what they be aware of most sensible whereas addressing the valuable problems with the book.

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30). The extensive continental platforms off the Eurasian landmass and in the Beaufort Sea mean that Arctic Water is dominant at the surface. Exits from the polar ocean are few, notably the Bering Strait between Alaska and Siberia, and Fram Strait between East Greenland and Svalbard. 1). The West Spitsbergen current and the East Greenland current are the two most important water movements. Fram Strait, with a sill depth of 2600 m, accounts for approximately three-quarters of the mass exchange and 90 percent of the heat exchange between the world ocean and the Arctic.

In North America the dominant species are spruce {Picea glauca; Picea mariana). In Siberia, the dominant species are pine (Pinus silvestris) and tamarack (Larix dahurica). In northern Scandinavia, the influence of the warm Atlantic Gulf Stream means that maritime subarctic conditions extend to nearly latitude 70°N. ). In summary, the arctic and sub-arctic regions include environments as diverse as perennial and seasonal pack ice, blue waters and ice-infested waters, ice sheets, polar deserts, tundra and both coniferous and deciduous northern forests.

This long evolution has led to the development of a polar ecosystem which has broad similarities to that in the Arctic, but also distinct differences related to the isolation of the continent and its rich oceanic inheritance. The importance of its isolation may even affect our political organisations today. Yes, there are differences between the Antarctic and the Arctic. The former is a continent, the latter an ocean basin; the Antarctic is higher, colder and has experienced full polar conditions for much longer; it supports the bulk of the world's land ice and has evolved a rich ecosystem focused on the ocean.

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Poles Apart: A Study in Contrasts by Antoni G. Lewkowicz

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