Download PDF by Krebs F.C. (ed.): Polymer photovoltaics: A practical approach

By Krebs F.C. (ed.)

ISBN-10: 0819467812

ISBN-13: 9780819467812

This publication is meant to be a pragmatic advisor within the laboratory for the experimental solar-cell scientist no matter if she or he is concerned with synthesis, machine coaching, processing, or machine characterization. valuable to all scientists operating essentially within the box, the booklet offers the method of making a polymer solar-cell gadget starting with an outline of fabrics, together with how they're made and characterised, via how the fabrics are processed into units and flicks, and the way those are characterised. From there, the prestige of 2 rising fields of polymer sunlight cells are defined: degradation and balance and large-scale processing.Contents - Index - Preface - record of abbreviations - creation - The Polymer sunlight telephone - Characterization of natural sunlight Cells - Lifetime and balance reviews - Processing and creation of enormous Modules - Outlook - References

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Fused ring systems (PITN), and copolymers based on benzothiadiazole, pyrrole, and thiophene (PBPT); benzothiadiazole and thiophene (PBT); benzo-bis(thiadiazole) and thiophene (PBBT); thienopyrazine and thiophene (PTP); thienopyrazine, thiophene, and fluorene (PTTF); and benzothiadiazole, thiophene, and fluorene (PBBTF) R = alkyl, phenyl or chlorine. an EDG and one has a EWG. 56 In Fig. 17, some examples of low bandgap polymers that are described in the literature are shown. These polymers can be divided into two categories, namely, (1) a fused ring HOMO polymer, for example, poly(isothianaphthene), PITN, and (2) copolymers based on donor and acceptor majorities, for example, the polymer based on benzothiadiazole and thiophene, PBT.

However, neither the optical nor the electrical bandgaps give this information directly. In the optical bandgap, the binding energy of the exciton is not accounted for and in the CV experiment the energy of solvation of the electrochemical species is unknown. The optical bandgap gives a somewhat larger value. To answer the question on why we need low bandgap polymers, we take a closer look at the solar spectrum. In Fig. 5G spectrum of the sun is shown together with the number of photons as a function of wavelength.

It relies on the fortuitous fact that lithiation occurs predominantly in the 5-position of 3-hexylthiophene, while bromination with NBS is directed to the less hindered 2-position. The 5-lithio-3-alkyl-thiophene intermediate is generated at low temperature and some rearrangement to the 2-isomer is inevitable. Reaction with a trialkyl tin chloride (trimethyltin chloride or tributyltin chloride) produces the stable 5-trialkylstannyl-3-alkyl-thiophene. 12. The bis-thiophene can be lithiated and brominated, and the reaction cycle continued to obtain higher oligomers.

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Polymer photovoltaics: A practical approach by Krebs F.C. (ed.)

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