By H. Dworschak (auth.), F. Mannone (eds.)
The use of tritium as a uncomplicated gas fabric in a thermonuclear fusion reactor increases specific questions of safety a result of mixed results of its physico chemical homes and radioactive nature. in addition the potential for achieving additional major progresses in constructing and demonstrating the feasibility of tritium burning units will depend on the dealing with of tritium macroquantities, say ten grammes, in a secure and trustworthy demeanour. it's also undoubted that, except technological constraints, any validation and exploitation of thermonuclear fusion as a resource of strength could be strongly conditioned via the appliance of stringent operational and environmental safeguard standards because it derives from norms of the trendy laws and public recognition concerns. no matter if the secure dealing with of tritium has already been validated to be possible on an entire gasoline cycle scale, it's unanimously famous that extra efforts are nonetheless to be focused on the development of present innovations and improvement of complex applied sciences. the various parts requiring gigantic extra efforts are plasma exhaust gasoline c1ean-up, tritium pellet injection, processing of inert provider fuel, improvement of huge free-oil pumps,tritlUm approach analytics, improvement of enormous detritiation platforms, beryllium-tritium interplay experiences, tritium hold-up reviews in getter beds, adsorbers and structural fabrics, tritium restoration from first wall, structural and breeder fabrics for minimizing tritiated waste arising,tritium garage expertise, tritiated waste disposal technolo~y, technique for regimen tritium accountancy,etc . . such a lot of them are intrinsically relating to the security requirement of tritium technology.
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Extra info for Safety in Tritium Handling Technology
The tritium concentration in the stream must be significantly higher than that resulting from the equilibrium dissociation pressure to promote tritium absorption on the alloy surface and as we will see shortly the gas transit time must be sufficiently long for tritium to diffuse from the stream to the alloy surface. The gas transit time ('tv is related to the time a slug of gas spends in the vicinity of the alloy and in the simplest case is defined by the ratio of the depth of the reaction zone in the flow direction (I ) to the mean face velocity of the gas.
Oo , 0 i i Ul , '0 ' :::> i ~ : : :IE ~ 10·'e ·············· ! . t~··. ···. ···· 12~ ... ,: Vatu .. 2 INFLUENCE OF IMPURITIES Tritium removal efficiencies in the presence of several impurities is an important consideration for glove box clean-up systems. The impurities, 02. CO, H20, and C~ can be found in glove box atmospheres, the first three due to permeation from the laboratory atmosphere and the latter one due to tritium interaction with metallic surfaces. 75 liters/min, both tritium and one of each impurity were introduced into the loop and mixed into the carrier while bypassing the upstream and downstream monitors and the scavenger bed.
Flow Meter Tritium Monitor Tritium Supply Scavenger Bed f--'~- Vacuum Tritium Monitor Mixing Tank Figure 9: A Conceptual Circulation Loop The blower has a volumetric flow rate of Q (Umin). The volume of the mixing tank is V liters and is assumed to approximate the system volume. Assume that the scavenger bed strips all tritium from the incoming stream. The rate at which the tritium concentration in the mixing tank (n) decreases with time is given by the relation dn V(jt=- Qn. (11) If the tritium concentration in the tank is no at the beginning of the test, then at any subsequent time t 33 n =no e - (QtJV) (12) where 'tideal defines the optimal response time for the system 'tideal V = Q.
Safety in Tritium Handling Technology by H. Dworschak (auth.), F. Mannone (eds.)