By Günter Seeber
Thoroughly revised and up-to-date version. The e-book covers the complete box of satellite tv for pc geodesy (status spring/\break summer time 2002). simple chapters on reference platforms, time, sign propagation, and satellite tv for pc orbits are up to date. All at present very important statement equipment are integrated and likewise all newly introduced satellites of curiosity to geodesy. specific emphasis is given to the present prestige of the worldwide Positioning method (GPS), which covers now approximately one 3rd of the e-book. a brand new bankruptcy on Differential GPS and lively GPS reference networks is integrated. The GPS modernization plans, GLONASS, the coming near near ecu approach GALILEO, smooth advancements in GPS information research, errors modelling, specific actual time tools and ambiguity answer are handled intimately. New satellite tv for pc laser ranging missions, new altimetry missions (e.g. TOPEX/Poseidon, ERS-1/2, GFO, JASON), and new and coming near near gravity box missions (CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE) also are thought of. The e-book serves as a textbook for complex undergraduate and graduate scholars, in addition to a reference for execs and scientists within the box of engineering and geosciences resembling geodesy, surveying, geo-information, navigation, geophysics and oceanography.
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The total motion is composed of a mean secular component (precession) and a periodic component (nutation) (Fig. 5). EN a ≈ 9. ◦ 5 EN 15. 5. Precession and nutation; Earth’s rotation axis PS PN describes a conic about the ecliptic poles ES , EN The position and orientation of the equatorial plane and the first point of Aries, ✗, is called mean equator and mean equinox, respectively, when only the influence of precession is considered. When nutation is taken into account, they are called true equator and true equinox.
Another efficient solution which also works for large heights is by Sjöberg (1999). 37) has become a standard routine in modern satellite positioning. A local ellipsoidal system, tied to the ellipsoidal vertical n at the observation point, P , can be defined as (Fig. 38) sin ϕ with the specifications: − origin at the observation point, P , − ze -axis in the direction of the ellipsoidal vertical, − xe -axis directed to the north (geodetic meridian), and − ye -axis directed to the east, completing a left-handed system.
16) The elements of the rotation matrices must be known with sufficient accuracy for each observation epoch. These rotations are now considered in more detail. (a) Precession and Nutation Earth’s axis of rotation and its equatorial plane are not fixed in space, but rotate with respect to an inertial system. This results from the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of Earth. The total motion is composed of a mean secular component (precession) and a periodic component (nutation) (Fig.
Satellite Geodesy by Günter Seeber