By Yongxiang Lu
This normal file, subsidized via the chinese language Academy of Sciences, provides a breathtaking state of affairs for China's modernization force to 2050. It analyzes the evolution and legislation governing the advance of technological know-how and know-how, describes the decisive effect of technological know-how and know-how at the modernization technique, predicts that the area is at the eve of an drawing close S&T revolution, and demands China to be totally ready for this new around of S&T development. in keeping with its distinctive research of the calls for on S&T innovation in China's modernization, it attracts a framework for 8 uncomplicated and strategic structures of socio-economic improvement with the help of technology and know-how, works out China's S&T roadmaps for the proper 8 simple and strategic platforms in accordance with China's truth, extra info S&T projects of strategic value to China's modernization, and offers S&T decision-makers with finished consultations for the advance of S&T innovation in line with China's truth. Supported by way of illustrations and tables of knowledge, the final file offers researchers, executive officers or even marketers with information referring to learn instructions, the making plans approach, and funding. It additionally serves as a preamble for the eighteen special field-specific experiences of the committees assigned to craft roadmaps for every sphere of development.
Founded in 1949, the chinese language Academy of Sciences is the nation's optimum educational establishment within the typical sciences. Its significant duties are to behavior study in simple and technological sciences, to adopt national built-in surveys on average assets and ecological surroundings, to supply the rustic with clinical information and consultations for government's decision-makings, to adopt government-assigned tasks in regards to key S&T difficulties within the technique of socio-economic improvement, to start up body of workers education, and to advertise China's high-tech corporations via its energetic engagement in those areas.
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Extra info for Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050: Strategic General Report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
The second technology revolution produced a large number of new industries, such as electric power and electrical apparatuses, automobiles, and petroleum chemical industries. This technology revolution improved the level and scale of the industries of machinery and smelting, and pushed a mechanical industrial society · 18 · Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050 The Third Technology Revolution The third technology revolution started in the 1930s and 1940s. After the World War II, new technological innovations took place one after another and developed in a diversified and integral way.
At the end of the 18th century, with the establishment of various factories, it was urgent to produce a large number of machine tools for steam engines and textile machines. In 1797, H. Maudslay invented a key device in manufacture, an accurate screw cutting lathes, which directly resulted in large machine processing factories. Hence, a group of outstanding designers of machine tools and manufacturers, such as J. Whitworth, and a series of inventions promoted the development and improvement of modern machine tools.
Some significant events were as follows: the DuPont Company of the USA invented Nylon-66 in 1935, and in the same year, the USA and Germany began to produce chloroethylene plastics. Macromolecule materials kept on replacing natural materials and played a more and more important role. In the 1960s, the world output of synthetic rubber overtook natural rubber for the first time. According to its calculated volume, the world output of plastics was almost equal to that of lumber and cement in the 1970s, and even surpassed that of steels in the early 1980s.
Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050: Strategic General Report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences by Yongxiang Lu