By Martin Luckner
A number of the reactions and compounds all in favour of metabolism are virtually iden tical within the assorted teams of dwelling organisms. they're referred to as fundamental me tabolic reactions and first metabolic items. furthermore, despite the fact that, a wide selection of biochemical pathways are attribute of just a couple of species of organ isms, of unmarried "chemical races", or maybe of a undeniable degree of differentiation of specialised cells. Such pathways are jointly known as "secondary metab olism", and the compounds shaped are referred to as "secondary products". Secondary items are often printed via their colour, scent, or style. they're responsi ble for the flavour of such a lot foodstuffs and drinks and for the colour and perfume of plants and culmination. a lot of them are a part of the materia medica, e. g. , alka loids, cardiac glycosides, antibiotics, or compounds performing as hormones. Others are utilized in the undefined, e. g. , rubber, tannins, and cellulose. This booklet treats the association and importance of biosynthesis, garage, transformation, and degradation of crucial teams of secondary seasoned ducts in microorgimisms, vegetation, arid animals. It indicates that the formation of sec ondary items is a typical attribute of specialised cells caused by means of the motion of precise enzymes encoded via particular genetic fabric.
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Extra resources for Secondary Metabolism in Microorganisms, Plants and Animals
3 Double Membrane Surrounded Compartments 43 contain both secondary products and enzymes of secondary metabolism (Table 5). , chlorophylls, phycobilins, plastid quinones, gibberellic acid derivatives, or, like flavonoid aglycones, other plastid quinones and carotenoids in lipophilic droplets located in the plastid plasm, the stroma. The site of accumulation of most hydrophilic secondary products is unknown. In rooted leaves of Nicotiana which accumulate large amounts of nicotine, the alkaloid was detected in the nonplasmic space between the two membranes of the chloroplast envelope and in vacuoles located within the stroma, formed by membrane convolutions.
Expression and control of secondary metabolism. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 8, Secondary Plant Products (E. A. Bell, B. V. ), pp. 23-63. : Control at the Ievel of substrate supply- an alternative in the regulation of phenylpropanoid accumulation in plant cells.
The stereospecificity is not limited to reactions for which the steric course is evident from the chemical configuration of substrate and product. Even at centers that arenot chiral, the reactions are in many cases stereospecific (stereochemically cryptic reactions). of discernible stereochemical behavior. Studies with hydrogen isotopes make up the majority of work carried out in this field. The two hydrogen atoms at a prochiral C-atom, which may be described by Caacd, where "a" is hydrogen and "c" and "d" are different substituents, are distinguished by an enzyme.
Secondary Metabolism in Microorganisms, Plants and Animals by Martin Luckner