By Thomas Munck (auth.)
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Additional info for Seventeenth Century Europe: State, Conflict and the Social Order in Europe 1598–1700
The Empire, however, could never be the same again. The imperial plans of 1628 and 1629, and Gustav's of 1632, equally unrealistic in their own ways, nevertheless destroyed some of the basic compromises of a century or more of imperial development. No participant could forget how dose the German lands had come to constitutional reorganisation and centralisation under either Habsburg or Swedish auspices, and the lesson was welliearnt in time for the peace negotiations of the 1640s. The elusiveness of peace (1634-48) The main participants up to 1632 had already demonstrated the timeless tendency for military momentum to lead to ever more monstrous schemes for final victory.
What to Gustav and his chancellor Oxenstierna seemed military sense, was regarded by most 20 Seventeenth century Europe German princes as a potential destruction of their constitutional rights or indeed of the very substance of the Empire. Johann Georg, in particular, was as always opposed to anything going beyond limited reform of the imperial institutions, and his rather too independent but able commander von Arnim (who had resigned from Wallenstein's army in protest against the Edict of Restitution) made the most of the ever murkier political jungle to conduct secret negotiations with, amongst others, his former principal.
The war was soon extended westwards, since there was some agreement that Counter-Reformation measures were compatible with the political objectives of Maximilian of Bavaria and even of the Spanish government. The Palatinate itself suffered heavy human and material losses from both Mansfeld's and Tilly's armies, but by 1622 Tilly and Spinola had occupied the remaining parts of the electorate. The electoral title was transferred to Maximilian as areward for his leadership of the League. 9 Further north, the next Catholic objectives were the Westphalian and Lower Saxon Circles,1O where there was a large number of secularised bishoprics, some of them of considerable political and international significance.
Seventeenth Century Europe: State, Conflict and the Social Order in Europe 1598–1700 by Thomas Munck (auth.)