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By Allamah Sayyed Muhammad Husayn Al-Tabataba'i, Edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr

ISBN-10: 0042970334

ISBN-13: 9780042970332

ISBN-10: 0873952723

ISBN-13: 9780873952729

ISBN-10: 0873952731

ISBN-13: 9780873952736

ISBN-10: 0873953908

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ISBN-10: 0941722198

ISBN-13: 9780941722193

ISBN-10: 9644381335

ISBN-13: 9789644381331

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THE ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF SHI’ISM 48 wage war against Hasan. Through different intrigues and the payment of great sums of money, Mu’awiyah was able gradually to corrupt the aides and generals of Hasan. 64 In the year 40/661 Mu’awiyah finally gained control of the caliphate. He then set out immediately for Iraq and in a speech to the people of that land said: "I did not fight against you for the sake of the prayers or of fasting. These acts you can perform yourself. " He also said, "The agreement I made with Hasan is null and void.

Therefore, even judging by the way the companions acted and dealt with each other, it can be concluded that such sayings cannot be literally true in the way some have understood them. If they do contain an aspect of the truth it is in indicating the legal inviolability of the companions and the sanctification which they enjoyed generally as a group because of their proximity to the Holy Prophet. The expression of God’s satisfaction with the companions in the Holy Quran, because of the services they had rendered in obeying His Command,74 refers to their past actions, and to God’s satisfaction with them in the past, not to whatever action each one of them might perform in the future.

Only then could they know and perform their duties as human beings- in which lay their real welfare-even if the performance of these religious duties were to be against their desires. After carrying out this first step a religious government should preserve and execute real Islamic order in society in such a way that man would worship none other than God, would possess personal and social freedom to the extent possible, and would benefit from true personal and social justice. These two ends could be accomplished only by a person who was inerrant and protected by God from having faults.

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Shi'ite Islam by Allamah Sayyed Muhammad Husayn Al-Tabataba'i, Edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr

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