By United States Army Center of Military History
Because the finish of worldwide battle II, civilian and army policymakers have sought to appreciate and increase the institutional approaches taken with the improvement of recent guns platforms. The continual demands institutional, managerial, and organizational reform recommend that such initiatives haven't continually been effortless nor truly outlined. This examine is meant to carry a few ancient readability to that challenge by way of picking out and interpreting the styles of organizational and institutional switch that guided in-house guns learn and improvement (R'D) over the process the previous six a long time. in particular, it info the historical past of guns R'D within the significant laboratories owned and operated through the military, the army, and the Air strength among 1945 and 2000. even as, the monograph enhances a bigger multivolume old attempt that's at present examining the regulations, techniques, and associations that guided the advance, creation, and procurement of significant weapon structures through the comparable interval. jointly they represent the on-going protection Acquisition heritage venture. the dep. of safeguard spends hundreds and hundreds of billions of bucks each year to maintain U.S. forces built with cutting-edge weapon platforms. examine and improvement is a vital part of this procedure. it's the origin upon which all weapon platforms are equipped as soon as specifications were set. even supposing they outsourced an important proportion in their examine requisites through the chilly conflict, the military, the army, and the Air strength additionally maintained broad in-house R'D institutions whose laboratories grew to become out many items, starting from basic wisdom in physics, chemistry, and different medical disciplines to accomplish prototype weapon platforms. What set the providers except each other, notwithstanding, was once the level to which they controlled and arranged their respective R'D courses. within the military, learn, improvement, and construction proceeded along each other within the production arsenals that were in non-stop operation because the starting of the 19th century, regardless of activities taken through a few military leaders to split those services organizationally as an important prerequisite to the advance of technologically complicated weapon platforms. The army, against this, maintained a sharper organizational department of work among R'D and construction. proven in 1923, the Naval learn Laboratory operated independently of the Navy’s fabric bureaus, the place, just like the Army’s arsenals, technological innovation had traditionally relied on the shut coordination of study, improvement, and creation. Created in 1947, the Air strength relied extra seriously than the military and the army at the deepest zone for brand new wisdom and talents. however it additionally operated an in depth community of in-house laboratories, the administration and association of which periodically shifted among the extremes of independence from and subordination to the Air Force’s creation and procurement capabilities. all through all 3 prone, a disjunction occasionally existed among the formula of R'D rules on the administration point and the implementation of these rules within the laboratory. those relationships and different styles of organizational switch are highlighted within the research and will aid DoD acquisition managers to appreciate the present acquisition setting and effectively navigate their means via it as they search to make expert judgements approximately destiny guns improvement throughout an more and more wide spectrum of actions
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Extra resources for Sources of weapon systems innovation in the Department of Defense : the role of in-house research and development, 1945-2000
20 Sources of Weapon Systems Innovation in the Department of Defense commodity category. The new Weapons Command, for example, managed the laboratories and production facilities at Rock Island and Watervliet arsenals and Springfield Armory, while the Electronics Command supervised the old Signal Corps laboratories (renamed the Electronic Research and Development Laboratories) located at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. 27 Some general patterns are discernable, however, and they help frame the more detailed examination of R&D in the arsenal system that follows in the section below.
Harwood, “Some Aspects of Government-Sponsored Research in Metallurgy,” Journal of Metals 9 (May 1957): 669. , Out of the Crystal Maze: Chapters in the History of Solid-State Physics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), esp. chap. 9. 24 Sources of Weapon Systems Innovation in the Department of Defense establishment, the arsenal system maintained a diversified research program on metals and alloys throughout the postwar period. All of the arsenals conducted some research on metals, but the Watertown and Frankford arsenals stood out as the major sources of expertise in this field.
2 (1986): 237–60; Lillian Hoddeson, “The Roots of Solid-State Research at Bell Labs,” Physics Today 30 (March 1977): 23–30; Hoddeson, “Research on Crystal Rectifiers during World War II and the Invention of the Transistor,” History and Technology 11 (1994): 121–30; Hoddeson, “The Invention of the PointContact Transistor,” Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 12 (1981): 41–76; George Wise, “Science at General Electric,” Physics Today 37 (December 1984): 52–61; and Ross Knox Bassett, To the Digital Age: Research Labs, Start-Up Companies, and the Rise of MOS Technology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).
Sources of weapon systems innovation in the Department of Defense : the role of in-house research and development, 1945-2000 by United States Army Center of Military History