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1988) as well as the breakdown of actin filament networks in the distal part of the growth cone 26 (Forscher and Smith, 1988). In this view, any molecule on the membrane of the growth cone that takes part in a receptor-ligand interaction leading to intracellular changes of the type referred to above could be considered to be an axon guidance molecule - a definition that encompasses a far wider variety of molecules than those traditionally considered to be cell adhesion molecules. Molecular components of signalling pathways are present in neurons in the Drosophila embryo at the time of axon outgrowth.

Motor axons that would normally innervate those muscles either bypass them, or make a detour and stall in the ventral region. 3), this result strongly supports a role for repulsion of motor axon growth cones in normal development. 4,2. Is differential filopodial adhesion the basis for growth cone turning? g. Bray and Chapman, 1985). This model was widely accepted and heavily influenced interpretation of the pioneering observations of axon growth in insect embryos. Recent observations in a variety of animals, but notably in several invertebrates, have begun to cast doubt on this model as a sufficient explanation for growth cone turning.

G. , 1992). If, indeed, axon repulsion is an important mechanism for growth cone guidance in vertebrates, it is highly likely that it also plays a role in invertebrates. To date, however, invertebrate systems have provided little direct evidence for axon repulsion in vivo. Kater and co-workers, working with identified neurons of the snail Helisoma in vitro, have shown that environmental factors can act to inhibit neurite extension rather than to stimulate it. , 1984). This effect is associated with the direct inhibition of growth cone motile activities and the retraction of filopodia and lamellipodia, as shown by focal applications of serotonin to the growth cone with a micropipette.

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Special Report - Identifiying & opportunities alternative energy IMT by Douglass S

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