By Erika Weinthal
The Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers of primary Asia circulate throughout deserts to empty into the Aral Sea. below Soviet rule, loads water was once diverted from the rivers for agricultural reasons that salinity degrees speedily rose and the ocean shrank. there has been an upsurge in airborne dirt and dust storms containing poisonous salt residue, and a brand new wasteland started to exchange the ocean. whilst, agricultural runoff rendered the consuming water not worthy for human consumption.In this publication Erika Weinthal examines how the imperative Asian states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have tackled the Aral Sea Basin situation because the 1991 cave in of the Soviet Union. The Amu Darya now flows via 3 new realms, and the Syr Darya via 4. This shakeup of political borders created a collective-action challenge for the successor states. whereas they had to consolidate family sovereignty, additionally they had to relinquish sovereignty over their water assets with a view to enhance a joint method to the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Weinthal examines why they have been in a position to cooperate over their shared water assets. She emphasizes the jobs of nonstate actors (international firms, nongovernmental organisations, and bilateral relief agencies) within the construction of associations for neighborhood cooperation and for country formation, exhibits how cooperation used to be nested in the state-building procedure whilst foreign third-party actors have been concerned, and highlights the shelling out of aspect funds (financial and fabric assets) by way of nonstate actors to assist either local cooperation and kingdom formation.
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Additional info for State Making and Environmental Cooperation: Linking Domestic and International Politics in Central Asia (Global Environmental Accord: Strategies for Sustainability and Institutional Innovation)
20 Coerced cooperation occurs where there are stark asymmetries of power or what others have denoted as an extreme form of heterogeneity (Martin 1994). 21 Because Moscow was able to mitigate conﬂicts among the Central Asian republics over water, and hence act a mediator, Moscow solved the problem of collective action among the Central Asian states. The Soviet government provided domestic stability and ensured cooperation in water sharing through the creation of an integrated plan for water management.
Owing to the physical interdependence of a river system, a country may ﬁnd its preferences constrained and its internal decision making obstructed if a large fraction of its water supply originates outside its borders. The extent to which a resource is shared has an immense effect on the bargaining position of a riparian country. The fact that 97 percent of Egypt’s water originates outside Egyptian territory clearly makes that country vulnerable to upstream actions by Sudan or Ethiopia. Hungary is extremely vulnerable to reductions in the ﬂow of the Danube, since 95 percent of its water supply arises outside its borders (Gleick 1993a, p.
I conclude with an examination of the unintended consequences of the role of the international community in Central Asia for environmental protection and for the early years of state building. This page intentionally left blank 2 International Riparian Politics: Concepts and Constraints Resource Scarcity, Environmental Degradation, and State Security The tearing down of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union added a large number of new states to the international system. The Soviet Union’s collapse shifted the balance of power in the international system, culminating with the end of the Cold War.
State Making and Environmental Cooperation: Linking Domestic and International Politics in Central Asia (Global Environmental Accord: Strategies for Sustainability and Institutional Innovation) by Erika Weinthal