By Keith Durham
Within the yr 1296, Edward I of britain introduced a sequence of vicious raids around the Anglo-Scottish Border in his try and annexe Scotland. The Scots retaliated and the 2 international locations have been plunged into three hundred years of conflict during which the Borderland turned the frontline and raiding, or "reiving," inspired through either side, turned a life-style. Keith Durham examines the Border fortresses, starting from small, well-defended castles to enforcing tower homes, or "peles," and numerous fortified farmhouses referred to as "bastles." He additionally investigates the various church buildings that have been bolstered opposed to assault and in occasions of hassle served as sanctuaries for his or her congregations.
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Extra info for Strongholds of the border reivers: fortifications of the Anglo-Scottish Border, 1296-1603
Above, the second floor comprised two rooms in the attic space created by the twin roofs that were lit by windows in the gable ends. TOP LEFT The upper door at Low Cleughs Bastle was 'harr-hung', the sill and lintel being provisioned with sockets in which a post attached to the door would pivot. In this view of the doorway, the socket in the lintel can be clearly seen. Note the drawbar tunnel in the jamb. On high ground to the east are the remains of Ros Castle, an Iron Age hill fort, which became one of the most important beacons in the English Marches; it is surely no coincidence that the Hebburn coat of arms contains three sable cressets, or beacons (see the bottom image on page 8).
Near the end of the 19th century, Doddington Bastle appears to have been in a habitable condition and a sketch from that period shows a steeply pitched roof and what appear to be four original windows in both the second and third storeys. Defensible churches Churches were tempting targets for reiving bands and lead taken from their roofs was prized booty, as when a raiding party from Teviotdale 'reived 4 webbes of leed' from the church at Ingram in Northumberland. In response to these depredations, many churches across the Border region were built with stout doors, thick walls, small, narrow windows and, in some instances, included the added security of a defensible tower.
Twa bailes togedder at anis, [at the same time] thai cumyng indeide [indeed]. Fower [four] bailes, ilk ane besyde uther [each beside the other] and all [fired] at anys [once] ... be suthfast [sure] knowledge that thai ar of gret power and menys [menace]. As raiders approached, tenants and folk who lived near the tower would seek protection within the safety of the barmkin, and once a tower house, or small castle, did come under attack, defenders could launch a variety of missiles from the security of the battlements or parapet walk.
Strongholds of the border reivers: fortifications of the Anglo-Scottish Border, 1296-1603 by Keith Durham