David N. Rogers, Paul M. Magee's The Chemistry of Photography: From Classical to Digital PDF

By David N. Rogers, Paul M. Magee

ISBN-10: 0854042733

ISBN-13: 9780854042739

Carried in wallets and displayed in houses, pictures are a standard, yet frequently an neglected characteristic of recent lifestyles. And, with the arrival of electronic expertise many think that the so known as 'wet chemistry' at the back of quaint images is a specific thing of the prior - yet is it? The Chemistry of images endeavours to solve the mysteries of photograph taking and displays at the range and complexity of the technology. It provides readers an perception into the chemistry had to generate photos, spanning all mediums together with nonetheless and movie in addition to electronic imaging. starting with the parts of traditional images resembling motion pictures and papers, the e-book additionally seems at mild trap and amplification, adverse motion pictures, processing ideas, color transparencies, the chemistry of color and movie motion pictures. The e-book concludes with a dialogue of electronic expertise and new ideas in images. This interesting booklet will entice scientists and people with a basic curiosity in either the recent and the outdated technology at the back of images.

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18. GB 1,253,839, Konishiroku Photo Industry Co. Ltd. CHAPTER 4 Developers Many compounds, both organic and inorganic, have been evaluated as potential developing agents, more commonly called developers. The basic property of a developer is that the molecule has to be a reducing agent. Not all reducing agents, however, are developers, as they need to be able to differentiate between exposed and unexposed silver halide crystals. While having the ability of discrimination as a basic requirement, there are further properties that are essential including  the ability to form dyes of the relevant hues when the oxidised colour developer reacts with the coupler,  stability of the developer solution to temperature, pH, oxygen, etc.

Weissberger. N. Lewis and M. , New York, 1923. CHAPTER 5 Processing Solutions All commercially available developer solutions are buffered to pH values commensurate with their uses. Although many compounds are capable of forming buffers, only a few are of use in photographic systems. Figure 1 provides some of the alternative buffering systems and their pH ranges which have been tested with photographic materials. This list is not intended as exhaustive, but indicates the range of chemicals, and their respective pH values, available to the processing chemists who formulate these solutions.

Figure 17 shows the lmax values that are needed for the various products. Red sensitising dyes also tend to be used in pairs. A typical pair of dyes used in colour film applications is given below, Figure 18. A longer wavelength pair of film red sensitising dyes appears as shown in Figure 19. This particular combination of dyes has also been used in some black and white paper applications. These dyes have also been used in O N N C2 H5 (CH2 )4SO 3- O SO3- SO3Na N O (CH2)3 C 2H5 C2H5 SO3- N C 2H5 (CH2 )3 N O R3 N CH2 n SO3- ; n = 3,4 R3 = R2, (CH3 )2 R2 = R2 N N C2H5 Figure 15 Examples of green cyanine sensitising dyes F 3C Cl CN Cl Cl Cl R1 R1 N N C 2H5 (CH2 )nSO3- n = 3 or 4 R2 = CH3, C2 H5, (CH 2)n SO 3- R2 N N C 2H5 M = Na, K, (C 2H5)3NH R1 , R4 = Cl, C 6H5; n, m = 2 - 4 (CH2)nSO3- Na N N C2 H5 (CH2)nSO3- N N C2 H5 (CH2) mSO3- (CH2 )nSO 3-M+ O N C2H 5 N O Cl Cl R1 R4 Light Capture and Amplification 37 38 Chapter 3 R S N N N N R X S N N R O R = CH3, C2H5, C6H5 S Y N R O R X = CH2, S; Y= O, S R4 O N N S N R3 O R2 R2 = (CH2)3OSO3Na, (CH2)4NHCOCH3 R3 = CH3, C2H5, C6H5 R4 = CH2COOH, C2H5 S CH3 S N N R N C2H5 N O O CH3 Figure 16 Examples of merocyanine green sensitising dyes Application λmax in the red region Colour negative films, colour reversal films, colour reversal papers 600-660nm Colour negative papers, pan chromatic black Maximum sensitivity at or above λ max 700nm and white papers Up to λmax 650nm Panchromatic black and white films Panchromatic sensitisation (up to λmax Aerial photographic films 750nm) Figure 17 lmax values for red sensitising dyes conjunction with a third dye, Figure 20, in aerial survey film, where the spectral region of the aerial films also covers the near infrared.

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The Chemistry of Photography: From Classical to Digital Technologies by David N. Rogers, Paul M. Magee

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