The City: The Basics - download pdf or read online

By Kevin Archer

ISBN-10: 1136193219

ISBN-13: 9781136193217

The City offers a quick but compelling review of the research of towns and town existence. It attracts on various views - financial, political, cultural, and environmental - to supply a extensive comparability of the evolution of towns within the wealthy worldwide north and the poorer worldwide south.

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Extra resources for The City: The Basics

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Sixth, literacy and numeracy are generally necessary to be a successful merchant in order to keep better track of business transactions, contracts, and inventories. Of course, this list of the main characteristics of merchant culture is hardly definitive and surely too general. But it does underscore that this new, emerging city-based merchant culture was quite different from the tradition-based agrarian culture from which it sprang. Merchant culture is all about initiating innovative change and pursuing material accumulation, growth, and expansion on the basis of private, competitive individual activity.

FROM TRADING TO INDUSTRIAL CITIES Finally, as the new industrial innovations and factory-based production processes spread throughout economies, more commodities flooded commercial markets at much lower prices. For reasons already discussed, such lower prices brought more and more people into these markets, thereby beginning a new phase of industrial development commonly known as mass production and mass consumption. The key is that the two phenomena essentially are linked in this manner, although this will not come to be entirely understood by most people until the innovations in the organization of industrial production linked to the name of an American, Henry Ford, in the early part of the twentieth century, as detailed in Chapter 4.

And it must also be emphasized again that both of these persuasions of city-based merchant culture were considered by many to be dangerously contrary to tradition, even quite heretical. THE REFORMATION AND CITY LIFE For all the reasons outlined above – the fall of centralized imperial regulation and the decentralized nature of European geopolitics; regular warfare and the competitive pursuit of political power; population growth; the emerging self-gotten political freedoms of cities; the long-distance linkages of the Crusades; and, one can add here, regular plagues and pestilences which killed both lord and serf randomly – the new cities and city people of the Renaissance rapidly grew in numbers and spread throughout Europe.

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The City: The Basics by Kevin Archer


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