By Ian Fletcher
Following the conflict of Bussaco on 27 September 1810 Wellington's seriously outnumbered troops started to withdraw in the direction of Lisbon. through the night of nine October the British and Portuguese started to withdraw at the back of a line of protecting works that have been outfitted to the north of Lisbon. those weren't the rudimentary box works that the French expected, yet a massive community of forts, batteries and redoubts whose development were began the former November - the traces of Torres Vedras. This 30-mile-wide line utilised the area's normal defences, damming rivers, scarping hillsides, blockading roads and constructing forts upon just about all of the hills. This identify describes its layout, construction and effectiveness within the face of French assaults.
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Additional info for The Lines Of Torres Vedras 1809-11
90 One can trace this disinhibition through force in wars themselves, especially in the First and Second World Wars, and also in the period between them. There is a large amount of literature from this period dealing with war and death. It seems that there was an audience for writing dealing with large-scale death because the survivors were unable to ﬁnd peace. 2. The Second Interaction: ‘The Aim Is to Disarm the Enemy’ In the second interaction to the extreme, Clausewitz turns his attention to the question of the polarity of the duel as a zero-sum game: if one of the two opponents wins, the other loses.
Once Clausewitz had drawn from this battle the conclusion that Napoleon should have tried to limit his defeat, it was not diﬃcult to take the next step and begin to treat strategies for limiting wars as no less important than Napoleon’s strategy of maximum force. As we have already seen in connection with the conclusions Clausewitz came to after Moscow, even after Waterloo his attitude to Napoleon remained a mixture of admiration and criticism. One can still see traces of this contradictory assessment of Napoleon in the concept of war Clausewitz uses in Book VIII of On War, where he speaks of the antithesis between absolute war as an ideal and real war (579–81).
It seems that there was an audience for writing dealing with large-scale death because the survivors were unable to ﬁnd peace. 2. The Second Interaction: ‘The Aim Is to Disarm the Enemy’ In the second interaction to the extreme, Clausewitz turns his attention to the question of the polarity of the duel as a zero-sum game: if one of the two opponents wins, the other loses. Escalation is not primarily caused by the intention to destroy the enemy, but by the desire to avoid being destroyed oneself.
The Lines Of Torres Vedras 1809-11 by Ian Fletcher