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Sam . ha-Sam . 280 The gharma pot is the vessel in which heated milk is offered to the N¯asatyas. va family of the eight book of the Rgveda — representing the first immigration wave of the Indo˚ Aryans, among whom the A´svin cult prevailed. 281 Proto-Finno-Ugrian *kärsä ‘pig’s snout’ is probably a front vocalic variant282 of earlier 272 Cf. ´ ´ ıyám ágra a¯ s¯ıd - yád ¯´ . alam . hit¯a 1,6,3: 90,4-6 y¯avad ´ agním a¯ dhattá im¯am ´ evá tán n¯ap¯ ´ ar¯ad. a´¯ . á hy àsy¯a´ m¯atr¯ ´ am var¯ah¯aya bibhárti.

The chariot of the gods. With this chariot of the gods he attains in safety the world of heaven. ”207 These conceptions are behind the ritual prescriptions concerning the way of reciting the a¯ s´vina-´sastra: “Having eaten of ghee, he should recite. Just as in this world a cart or a chariot, when oiled, goes (well), so he when oiled goes. a’s messenger at the seat of Yama209 and thus connected with death. In the Indus civilization and in the Cemetery H culture of the Punjab (c. 1900-1300 BCE), the peacock seems to have been assumed to carry the dead to heaven.

LIV Add (2001): 100. 275 For the Proto-Dravidian root *ulu, the meanings ‘to plough’ and ‘to dig up soil with snout (as pigs do)’ are ¯ recorded throughout the language family; cf. Burrow & Emeneau 1984: 67 no. 688. 276 Cf. Krick 1982: 145-155. 277 Biardeau (1989: 43) points out that the word múkha- ‘mouth’ corresponds to casala. ¯´ in the other variant of the story and thus confirms the meaning ‘snout’. a¯ la (which does resemble the snout), see Biardeau 1989: 42. 278 Cf. Krick 1982: 152. á iti var¯ahá új jagh¯ana; sò ’sy¯ah.

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The Nâsatyas, the chariot and Proto-Aryan religion by Parpola, Asko


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