By Howard Dick, Michael Sullivan, John Butcher
Until the early 1900s governments of Southeast Asia farmed out the ideal to run opium, playing and different monopolies. but by way of approximately 1920 all the significant farms were abolished and the gathering of profit introduced lower than direct bureaucratic regulate. This e-book explains the increase and unexpected fall of profit farming, strains the altering fortunes of the chinese language businessmen who held the key farms, and makes use of the examine of profit farming to envision the emergence of the fashionable nation in Southeast Asia.
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Additional info for The Rise and Fall of Revenue Farming: Business Elites and the Emergence of the Modern State in Southeast Asia
The following brief chapter outlines are intended to set each chapter in the context and structure of the book and to highlight some of the salient features but readers may prefer to seek their own paths. Part I: Themes and Perspectives Chapter 2, 'Revenue Farming and the Changing State'. Butcher argues that revenue farming was a key institution in the emergence of the modern Southeast Asian state. As the state began to emerge from a decentralised, patrimonial polity to coalesce around either a strong ruler or a colonial regime in a Westernised 'rational' form, the 'central government' required some larger and more reliable source of revenue.
Over a period of about thirty years from the mid-1880s several big farm syndicates either were ruined or came close to collapse. In broad terms the same thing happened in all cases. First, having outbid rivals by offering exorbitant rents for the farms, these syndicates found themselves unable to meet their contractual obligations. Usually this was because of a dramatic downturn in the economy, as happened in Java in the 1880s and the FMS in 1907-8, but it could happen for other reasons as well.
This set the pattern that the Dutch followed as they extended their control up the east coast of Sumatra and elsewhere in the archipelago. It was as late as 1909 when the Dutch compensated the Sultan of Riau-Lingga for the loss of some of his farms (V 17/9/1908/14). On the Malay Peninsula the British took over the farms in Perak about a year after the Pangkor Engagement of 1874. Instead of awarding specific compensation, however, the colonial government granted members of the ruling elites of Perak, Selangor, Sungei Ujong and, later, Pahang, pensions and allowances according to British perceptions of the Malay hierarchy.
The Rise and Fall of Revenue Farming: Business Elites and the Emergence of the Modern State in Southeast Asia by Howard Dick, Michael Sullivan, John Butcher