By Anthony J. Pansini
This e-book discusses the issues of reliability brought on by the deregulation of electrical utilities and people of safeguard created through the occasions of September eleven. writer Anthony Pansini, an authorized specialist engineer and existence Fellow of IEEE, indicates recommendations, with regards to the layout, development, upkeep, and operation of transmission amenities, for protecting and enhancing the reliability of deregulated transmission platforms, and covers the nationwide Transmission Grid learn intensive. He comprises assurance of phenomena happening in electrical concept, in non- or semi-technical phrases, for the good thing about the non-engineer.
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Extra resources for Transmission Line Reliability and Security
One of its chief advantages is that one conductor may take the place of three in a-c conductors in a circuit. The return path for such a d-c circuit can be the ground, aided by the grounds associated with the lightning protection of the line, namely, the overhead ground wire and the underground counterpoises, some of which may involve a continuous path between structures (Figure 5-1). Crossing bodies of water, particularly sea water, the sea provides the return conductor. Other important advantages stem from the fact that d-c circuits do not have alternating magnetic and electrostatic fields about them, hence no problems with inductive and capacitive reactances with their effects on voltage and power losses that may seriously reduce the active power transmission capability, requiring the use of corrective reactors.
In addition to this, since 9-11, it may be prudent to build a barbed wire top and bottom fence (see Figure 3-2), but with no gates (access by bucket vehicle) around the base of every tower. A coordinated attempt to blow up one or more towers on a major transmission line or on several transmission lines, can seriously disrupt the functioning of industrial plants (also defense plants) as well as the lives of 26 Transmission Line Reliability and Security populations in large areas of the country from long periods without electric service.
Various configurations of steel towers and wood pole line structures are shown in Figures 3-7a, 3-7b, and 3-7c. Spans on wood pole lines are much shorter, generally not exceeding 500 feet, with the sag in the conductor spans usu- Mechanical Criteria 27 Figure 3-7a. Typical configurations of steel-tower lines. Figure 3-7b. Typical configurations of wood-pole lines. ally so small that the danger of them contacting each other in the wind, or of “dancing” is not present. Failure of conductors or poles from ice and wind is more rapidly repaired, than for towers (mentioned above) because maintenance work, even at mid-span, both while energized or de-energized, can be done from insulated bucket vehicles (perhaps 28 Transmission Line Reliability and Security Figure 3-7c.
Transmission Line Reliability and Security by Anthony J. Pansini