By Herbert Sussman
Victorian expertise: Invention, Innovation, and the increase of the computing device captures the intense surge of power and invention that catapulted 19th-century England into the placement of the world's first industrialized state. It was once an superb transformation, one who shaped—and used to be formed by—the values of the Victorian period, and that laid the basis for the consumer-based society within which we presently live.Filled with brilliant info and engaging insights into the impression of the economic Revolution on peoples' lives, Victorian expertise locates the forerunners of the defining applied sciences of the our time in 19th-century England: the pc, the web, mass transit, and mass communique. Readers will come upon the leading edge thinkers and marketers at the back of history-making breakthroughs in communications (the transatlantic cable, instant communication), mass creation (the built-in factory), transportation (railroads, gliders, automobiles), and extra.
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Additional info for Victorian Technology: Invention, Innovation, and the Rise of the Machine (Victorian Life and Times)
As the practice of weaving with power looms became automatic, the setting or, in our terms, programming of the loom became more sophisticated. In 1801, Joseph M. Jacquard of France invented what came to be called the jacquard loom, a device quickly adopted by British mill owners. The jacquard had the advantage of being able to weave automatically and repetitively into fabrics the interlacing designs of flowers and animals so beloved by Victorians. In the jacquard loom, the fabric designer translates his or her textile patterns to be woven for the power loom by punching holes into paper cards.
Adopting a standard gauge was crucial for several reasons. For industrial manufacturing, as always, the principle of standardization reigned. Locomotive manufacturers could attain efficiency in their mass production of engines only if their product was uniform. Rather than producing locomotives with differing wheel bases for different gauges, the factories could design their machine tools for a standard engine. The gauge wars of the 1840s illustrate an inherent logic in mechanization. The expansion of mechanical systems from workshop to region, from region to nation, and then to the world necessitates that the local idea must give way to an imposed consistency created by government or by the needs of the system itself.
By the early Victorian industrial decades, the advantages of coal-gas lighting were generally recognized. Gas lighting was 75 percent less expensive than candles or oil lamps. Soon, the large interior spaces of mills were brightly illuminated by gas lamps. The effect of gas lighting on the factory system was great. Hours of work could be extended since labor was no longer dependent on natural light or expensive candle power. Men, women, and children could now work effectively round the clock in the mills.
Victorian Technology: Invention, Innovation, and the Rise of the Machine (Victorian Life and Times) by Herbert Sussman